PHY PHYSICSOn this page: Introduction  Faculty Members  Programs  Courses See also: Course Summer Timetable  Course Winter Timetable  Secondary School Information  More on Department IntroductionPhysics is the study of natural phenomena at the most fundamental level. Physicists investigate the properties of the states of matter and the structure and behaviour of the components of matter. The gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear interactions are examined and different systems of mechanics including classical, relativistic, quantum and statistical, are developed to describe interactions between systems ranging from subatomic to galactic in size. A program in physics has much to offer you. Besides traditional careers in teaching and research, knowledge of Physics is a powerful tool for a career in the Environmental or Life Sciences. An understanding of Physics is essential for those who are concerned about how society is affected by the impact of modern technology. The conceptual tools one acquires as a physicist can be applied to many occupations. The Specialist Program offers an intensive preparation for a career in Physics. By choosing ones courses from the wide variety offered, one can emphasize experimental, theoretical or even applied sides of physics. In fourth year, students intending to undertake graduate studies are encouraged to take an Option or part of an Option. Options are offered in Quantum Optics and Condensed Matter Physics, SubAtomic Physics and Planetary Physics, reflecting the research excellence of the faculty. We have recently introduced a new program in Applied Physics which focuses more on subject matter which will help one in an industrial career. As part of this program, students are encouraged to take advantage of the Professional Experience Year program. The recently funded Nortel Applied Physics Laboratory is an integral part of the Applied Physics program. The Professional Experience Year program ("PEY": see Study Elsewhere Program Options) is available to eligible, fulltime Specialist students after their second year of study. The Department produces an Undergraduate Reference Booklet which gives detailed information on programs and courses, and describes the operation of the Department and the counselling services available. All students, most particularly those entering first year, are strongly urged to pick up a copy from the Department Office before term begins. Associate Chair: Professor B. Statt, Room 324, McLennan Physical Laboratories (9786674) (ugchair@physics.utoronto.ca) Enquiries: Undergraduate Office, Room 301, McLennan Physical Laboratories (9787057/5219) Web Page: http://www.physics.utoronto.ca Faculty Members
† Crossappointed PHYSICS PROGRAMSEnrolment in the Physics programs requires completion of four courses; no minimum GPA is required. APPLIED PHYSICS (Hon.B.Sc.)Consult Professor B. Statt, Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies), Department of Physics.Specialist program: S10851 (13.5 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400series course)
PHY 305308H; 405408H; 325Y/326H; 425Y/426H; 495H/496H; and
NOTE: Students intending to pursue a career in Industry are strongly urged to take advantage of the Professional Experience Year Program. PHYSICS (B.Sc.)Consult Professor B. Statt, Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies), Department of Physics.Specialist program (Hon.B.Sc.): S19441
(12.5 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400series course)
NOTE: Third/Fourth Year Laboratories:
Major program Major program: A. `CORE' MAJOR M19441 (7.5 full courses or their equivalent)
B. `GENERAL' MAJOR M1925 (7 full courses or their equivalent) NOTE: This program is intended for students in the Life Sciences
Minor program Minor program: A. `CORE' MINOR R19441 (4 full courses or their equivalent)
B. `LIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL' MINOR R25651 (4 full courses or their equivalent)
EARTH SYSTEMS: PHYSICS AND ENVIRONMENT — See DIVISION OF THE ENVIRONMENT PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY — See ASTRONOMY PHYSICS AND BIOLOGY — See BIOLOGY PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY — See CHEMICAL PHYSICS PHYSICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE — See COMPUTER SCIENCE PHYSICS AND GEOLOGY — See GEOLOGY PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS — See MATHEMATICS PHYSICS COURSES(see Section 4 for Key to Course Descriptions)For Distribution Requirement purposes, all PHY courses are classified as SCIENCE courses. NOTE Books listed in course descriptions will not necessarily be the texts for the course, but do indicate the level of presentation. Pre and corequisites are recommendations which may be waived in special circumstances  students should consult the Department prior to the beginning of term.
SCI199Y Undergraduate seminar that focuses on specific ideas, questions, phenomena or controversies, taught by a regular Faculty member deeply engaged in the discipline. Open only to newly admitted first year students. It may serve as a breadth requirement course; see First Year Seminars: 199Y.
PHY100H In 1905 Einstein presented the first of a quartet of papers which revolutionized our understanding of gravity. He commented: "Hardly anyone who has truly understood this theory will be able to resist being captivated by its magic." The general theory of relativity is not the only physics theory which is magical, and Einstein was not physics' only magician. We uncover the magic of the classical and the quantum world courtesy of Kepler, Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, Heisenberg and others. Topics include planetary motion, chaos, the nature of light, Schrodinger's cat, time travel, black holes, and quarks. No mathematics is required, and any necessary elementary classical physics is reviewed.
PHY100H NOTE First Year Laboratory Taken by all students enrolled in PHY110Y, 138Y, 140Y. An introductory course in experimentation, starting with selected experiments, which each student is obliged to complete, but from there on, offering choices. Emphasis is on the general principles of experimentation: planning, use of instruments, error estimation, data analysis and comparison with theory, the keeping of complete records, and genuine exploratory work. Laboratories are given in alternate weeks; students taking Physics and Chemistry laboratories may schedule these on the same afternoon of alternate weeks.
PHY110Y Designed for students who do not intend to take more than one course in Physics, but who wish to acquire a working knowledge of basic physics needed in other areas of science. The course is offered at a level similar to OAC Physics. Students in other disciplines who wish some exposure to the methods and excitement of modern physics should consider either PHY100H or JPU200Y. (See "NOTE" after PHY100Y giving description of laboratory) Reference: Cutnell, Physics (Wiley)
PHY138Y This course is recommended strongly for students following a life science program. Mechanics; torque and statics; work, power and energy; viscous forces; vibrations and waves; sound; optics; electric and magnetic forces and fields; dielectric and conductors; DC circuits; nuclear medicine; dose from radiation; nuclear physics. (See "NOTE" after PHY100Y giving description of laboratory) Reference: Sternheim and Kane, General Physics (Second Edition; Wiley)
The first physics course in many of the Specialist and Major Programs in Physical Sciences. It provides an introduction to the concepts, approaches and tools the physicist uses to describe the physical world while laying the foundation for classical and modern mechanics. Topics include: the motion of single particles and rigid, extended bodies (Newtonian Mechanics); planetary motion, gravitational collapse; black holes: Special Relativity and an introduction to elementary particle physics; the description of large numbers, e.g., a gas of weakly interacting particles (Statistical Mechanics); the breakdown of Newtonian mechanics in the microscopic world; introduction to Quantum Mechanics, waveparticle duality and the uncertainty principle. (See "NOTE" after PHY100Y giving description of laboratory)
200SERIES COURSESNOTE All 200series PHY courses require a 100series MAT prerequisite. See corequisite entries under 100series PHY courses above.
JPU200Y A general, nonmathematical introduction to many of the most interesting concepts of physics with an emphasis on modern physics, intended primarily for nonscience students. It focuses on basic changes in our view of the universe that are needed to accommodate important discoveries of 20thcentury Physics, and introduces some of the striking parallels to ideas of Eastern mysticism. Topics include Newtonian physics, spacetime, relativity, curvature of space, quantum physics, chaos, quarks and big bang cosmology. The relationship of physics to linguistics, the humanities and the social sciences is also discussed. (Given by the Department of Physics and University College) This course entails the writing of essays and written tests.
PHY225H The 2nd year Physics Laboratory. Topics including experimental techniques, instrumentation, and data analysis are introduced through experiments, complementary lectures, and library research of some of the great experiments of physics.
ENV235Y The formation and evolution of Earth as a planet in the Solar System: origin of the elements, composition of planets, mantlecore differentiation, tectonics, geologic change and time scales. The biosphere: i.e., the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust: operation as a physicochemical system, atmospheric composition and roles of major and minor constituents, ocean/atmosphere energy budgets, circulations and couplings; climate, glaciation. The effects of human intervention and natural processes: e.g., groundwater quality, atmospheric change, volcanic activity. Given by the Departments of Physics and Chemistry.
PHY238Y Electromagnetism; biological effects of radiation; physical optics; macroscopic phenomena; heat engines and metabolism. Examples are taken, where applicable, from the life sciences. Reference: Custom published booklets will be available for the various parts of the course.
PHY251H Point charges; Coulomb's inverse square law; electrostatic field and potential; Gauss' law; conductors; magnetostatistics; Ampere's law; BiotSavart law; dielectric and magnetic materials; electrostatic and magnetostatic energy; Lorentz force; time varying fields; Faraday's law; Maxwell's equations.
PHY252H The quantum statistical basis of macroscopic systems; definition of entropy in terms of the number of accessible states of a many particle system leading to simple expressions for absolute temperature, the canonical distribution, and the laws of thermodynamics. Specific effects of quantum statistics at high densities and low temperatures. Reference: Kittel and Kroemer, Thermal Physics
PHY255H Complex notation; free, damped and forced vibrations; resonance; AC circuits; coupled oscillators; normal modes; travelling waves; simple harmonic wave; wave equation; wave impedance; transverse and longitudinal waves; flow of energy in waves; reflection and transmission at interfaces; group and phase velocity; Fourier series and Fourier transforms.
PHY256H Failures of classical physics; Planck radiation formula; photoelectric effect; particle nature of waves; Compton scattering; wave nature of particles; atomic spectra; atomic energy levels; Schrodinger equation; solutions for onedimensional systems (infinite well, square well, harmonic oscillator); time dependence; uncertainty principle; packets; scattering and tunnelling in onedimension. Reference: French & Taylor, An Introduction to Quantum Physics
PHY299Y Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. See Research Opportunity Program for details. 300SERIES COURSESNOTE Students taking 300series courses are invited to attend the Thursday afternoon Department colloquia. Upon request, the Department of Physics provides staff advisers during the Spring Term for those taking 300series courses.
JPA305H Introduction to methods for remote sensing of buried archaeological remains, dating, and analysis of ancient materials. Application of methods and interpretation of results in archaeological contexts. (Offered in alternate years) (Given by the Departments of Physics and Anthropology) Reference: Aitken, Physics and Archaeology; Tite, Methods of Physical Examination in Archaeology; Fleming, Dating in Archaeology
JPA310H Introduction to the principles behind archaeometric methods for remote sensing, dating, and analysis of archaeological materials, and interpretation of results. Offered in conjunction with JPA305H. (Offered in alternate years) (Given by the Departments of Physics and Anthropology)
PHY305H The laboratory functions as an integrated lecture course/laboratory program. Passive linear circuits: theorems, networks, and equivalents; meters, transient and steady responses, power, transformers, transmission lines. Digital devices: gates logic, Boolean algebra, minimization, flipflops, counters, delays. Opamps: dependent sources, amplifiers, integrators, feedback, slew rate, filters. Diodes: peak detector, rectification, regulators. Noise: sources, grounding, shielding, ground loops. Transistors: characteristics, analysis, amplifier design.
NOTE Computational Laboratory Students may select one or more modules from PHY307H/308H/309H below. The laboratory functions as an integrated lecture course/laboratory program.
PHY307H Problem solving using Mathematica; introductory exercises; the physical pendulum, integration methods; the heat equation, finite difference methods; coupled spin systems, Monte Carlo methods; visualization and the statistical analysis of experimental data.
PHY308H The analysis of digital sequences; filters; the Fourier Transform; windows; truncation effects; aliasing; auto and crosscorrelation; stochastic processes, power spectra; least squares filtering; application to real data series and experimental design.
PHY309H Classic quantum mechanics problems are explored using Maple computer algebra and graphics. These include bound state and scattering problems in 1D, angular momentum and spin, commutator algebra, RungeLenz algebra, harmonic and Morse oscillators. General techniques for computeraided problem solving are developed.
PHY315H The role of radiation in the generation, maintenance and evolution of planetary atmospheres and climate: Radiation laws, absorption and emission. Simple radiative exchange processes and atmospheric models. Energy balance. Radiation and climatic change. Comparative radiation studies in planetary atmospheres. Pollution and manmade effects.
PHY325Y/326H Experiments in this course are designed to form a bridge to current experimental research. A wide range of experiments are available using contemporary techniques and equipment. In addition to the standard set of experiments a limited number of research projects are also available. The laboratory is open from 9 a.m.  5 p.m., Monday to Friday.
PHY346H Linear systems analysis; transport in biological systems; control of the oculomotor system; electrical properties of nerves and membrane. Nonlinear dynamics and simple neural networks.
PHY351H Review of elementary mechanics, generalized coordinates and constraints, Lagrange's equations, Hamilton's principle, planetary motion, small oscillations and stability, Hamilton's equations, phase space, Liouville's theorem, canonical transformations, HamiltonJacobi theory, actionangle variables, invariant tori, perturbation theory.
PHY352H Review of vector calculus, transformation properties of vectors, electrostatics, special theory of relativity, development of the equations of electrodynamics from the Einstein principle of relativity and the laws of electrostatics, basic formulae of magnetostatics, electromagnetic plane waves, and, in the unlikely event that time permits, retarded potentials and radiation.
PHY353H Review of Maxwell's equations; waves in free space; waves in dielectric and conductive materials, skin effect; waves in dispersive media: polarization phenomena; Fresnel equations; reflection and refraction from an interface; Brewster angle, total internal reflection; energy and momentum of EM waves; geometrical optics; interference, coherence effects; interferometers; Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction; Fourier optics; holography.
PHY355H The general structure of wave mechanics; eigenfunctions and eigenvalues; operators; orbital angular momentum; spherical harmonics; central potential; separation of variables; hydrogen atom; Dirac notation; operator methods; harmonic oscillator and spin. Reference: CohenTannoudji, Quantum Mechanics, Vol. 1, Wiley
PHY357H The subatomic particles; nuclei, baryons and mesons, quarks, leptons and bosons; the structure of nuclei and hadronic matter; symmetries and conservation laws; fundamental forces and interactions, electromagnetic, weak, and strong; a selection of other topics, CP violation, nuclear models, standard model, proton decay, supergravity, nuclear and particle astrophysics. This course is not a prerequisite for any PHY 400level course.
PHY358H Variational principle; fine and hyperfine structure of the hydrogen atom; the helium atom; exchange terms; coupling schemes; Hund's rules; simple molecules; ortho and para states; bonding and antibonding orbitals; rotation and vibration of molecules; crystal binding; electron in a periodic potential; reciprocal lattice; Bloch's theorem; KronigPenney model and energy bands; metals, semiconductors and insulators; Fermi surfaces; chemical potential.
PHY371Y/372H An individual study program chosen by the student with the advice of, and under the direction of, a staff member. A student may take advantage of this course either to specialize further in a field of interest or to explore interdisciplinary fields not available in the regular syllabus.
400SERIES COURSESNOTE A program including one or more of PHY 470472, PHY 478479, or PHY 480498 must be endorsed by the Department. Students taking 400series courses are invited to attend Thursday afternoon Department colloquia.
JPA400Y An introduction to research in archaeometry and archaeological prospecting. Possible projects: magnetic and resistivity surveying of archaeological sites; thermoluminescence measurements; neutron activation analysis and xray fluorescence analysis of artifacts; radiocarbon dating by atom counting; lead isotope analysis. (Offered in alternate years) (Given by the Departments of Physics and Anthropology)
PHY405H The laboratory functions as an integrated lecture course/laboratory program. Transistors, BJTs and MOSFETs: analysis tools, amplifier design. Digital devices: numbering systems, codes and representations, readouts, decoders, registers, multiplexing, debouncing, state machines, memory, errors. Digitization, processing, aliasing. Microprocessors; busses, IO, data transmission, a/d and d/a. Active linear analogue circuits: response analysis, feedback, filters, oscillators, amplifiers, Fourier and Laplace transforms.
PHY406H The laboratory functions as an integrated lecture course/laboratory program. Computer as controller and data collector; programming and interface methodologies; the principles of analogtodigital and digitaltoanalog conversion; elementary data analysis; collection methodologies; simple data analysis concepts; signal processing techniques; implementation in modern laboratory environment, examples and experiments.
NOTE Computational Laboratory Students may select one or more modules from PHY407H/408H/409H below. The laboratory functions as an integrated lecture course/laboratory program.
PHY407H Problem solving using Mathematica; introductory exercises; the physical pendulum, integration methods; the heat equation, finite difference methods; coupled spin systems, Monte Carlo methods; visualization and the statistical analysis of experimental data.
PHY408H The analysis of digital sequences; filters; the Fourier Transform; windows; truncation effects; aliasing; auto and crosscorrelation; stochastic processes; power spectra; least squares filtering; application to real data series and experimental design.
PHY409H Classic quantum mechanics problems are explored using Maple computer algebra and graphics. These include bound state and scattering problems in 1D, angular momentum and spin, variational methods, scattering in 3D and time dependent processes. General techniques for computeraided problem solving are developed.
PHY425Y/426H Experiments in this course are designed to form a bridge to current experimental research. A wide range of experiments are available using contemporary techniques and equipment. In addition to the standard set of experiments and limited number of research projects are also available. The laboratory is a continuation of PHY325Y and is open from 9:00am.  5:00pm, Monday to Friday.
JGP438H An introduction to the geophysical exploration of the subsurface. Topics covered include gravity, seismic, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic surveying and their application in prospecting, hydrogeology, and environmental assessments. This course is intended primarily for geology students.
PHY445H The mathematical, physical and engineering basis for medical imaging is introduced by combining the mathematical description of linear systems with the physics of imaging systems utilizing xrays, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance techniques. Three student labs are held in the imaging research laboratories at Sunnybrook Hospital. Students not in a physics specialist program should consult the coordinator about the recommended background. Reference: E. Krestel, Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnostics, Siemans, 1990
PHY457H Quantum dynamics in Heisenberg and Interaction Pictures; Coherent States, Electron in a Magnetic Field; Continuous and Discrete Symmetries in Quantum Mechanics; Bloch's Theorem, Localized States in a Disordered Lattice; Green's Function Method; WKB Approximation, RayleighSchrodinger and BrillouinWigner Perturbation Theory; Time Dependent Perturbation Theory, Fermi's Golden Rule; Absorption and Emission of Light from Atoms; Variational Techniques; Scattering Theory, LippmanSchwinger Equation, Partial Wave Analysis, SMatrix and TMatrix Theory.
PHY459H Thermal equilibrium and temperature; equations of state; entropy; free energies; Maxwell relations; phase transitions; third law; superfluids; superconductors; elements of hydrodynamics; conservation laws; solenoidal and irrotational flow; entropy production; constitutive relations; NavierStokes equation.
PHY460H Nonlinear oscillator; nonlinear differential equations and fixed point analysis; stability and bifurcation; Fourier spectrum; Poincare sections; attractors and aperiodic attractors; KAM theorem; logistic maps and chaos; characterization of chaotic attractors; BenardRayleigh convection; Lorenz system.
PHY471Y/472H These selfstudy courses are similar to PHY371Y/372H, at a higher level.
PHY478H/479Y An introduction to research in Physics. For further information contact the Associate Chair, Undergraduate Studies.
FOURTH YEAR PHYSICS OPTIONS NOTE The Department of Physics offers to senior undergraduate students wishing to specialize in a particular area of Physics a limited set of options. An option, the equivalent of 2 full courses, is built up from Advanced Courses commonly offered to incoming graduate students, in the series PHY480H  499H, a half or fullyear Undergraduate research project PHY478H/479Y and the open format supervised reading courses PHY471Y/472H. An option is NOT required to complete a Specialist Program in Physics but is recommended strongly to students wishing to pursue further graduate studies. Entry to an option requires an interview with one of the option supervisors and permission of the Department. An above average performance in the equivalent of a Specialist or combined Specialist Program in Physics is expected. Option talks are given to students in their third year of study. An option can be tailored for each student. The Advanced Courses
PHY480H Topics include: classical and quantum statistical mechanics of noninteracting systems; the statistical basis of thermodynamics, ensembles, partition function, thermodynamic equilibrium, stability and fluctuations, formulation of quantum statistics, theory of simple gases, ideal bose and fermi systems.
PHY481H Topics include: thermodynamic fluctuations, distribution functions, interacting classical fluids, phase transitions, Ising model, mean field theory, scaling and universality.
PHY482H Topics include: the origin and implications of symmetry in physics; the basic language of group theory; discrete groups and matrix groups; groups of physical transformations; the representation of groups; tensor operators and the WignerEckart theorem; Lie groups. Applications to some of the following: crystal symmetries; electronic bands in crystals; vibrations of molecules; SU(2) and SU(3) in particle and nuclear physics.
PHY483H Topics include: special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations, kinematics, energymomentum tensor and hydrodynamics; relativistic particle dynamics, and electrodynamics, introduction to gravitation theory, geodesics, curvature tensor and Bianchi identities; variational principle and Einstein's gravitational field equations; gravitational waves.
PHY484H Topics include: General theory of relativity; Schwarzschild solution, Kruskal coordinates, gravitational collapse and black holes. Experimental tests of gravitational theories. Cosmology; FriedmannRobertsonWalker metric, Hubble redshifts. Current models in Cosmology.
PHY485H Lasers, and the interaction of light with matter. In addition to the semiclassical theory of the laser, linear and nonlinear optical elements ranging from optical resonators to acoustooptic modulators, along with a survey of laser types and their applications are discussed. A number of modern topics from quantum optics, including laser cooling, squeezed light and the EinsteinPodolskyRosen effect are also considered.
PHY486H Introduction to quantum electrodynamics, quantization of the electromagnetic field; semiclassical picture of atomradiation field interaction, Einstein coefficients, laser theory from the Einstein rate equations; resonance interaction of light with twolevel atoms, optical solution propagation, coherent and squeezed states of light, quantum theory of atomradiation field interactions, radiative decay and the lamb shift, photonic band gap materials and quantum theory of the laser.
PHY487H Introduction to the concepts used in the modern treatment of solids. The student is assumed to be familiar with elementary quantum mechanics. Topics include: crystal structure, the reciprocal lattice, crystal binding, the free electron model, electrons in periodic potential, lattice vibrations, electrons and holes, semiconductors.
PHY488H Introduction to quantum field theory and elementary particle physics. Topics include: canonical quantization, symmetries and conservation laws, Smatrix expansion, Feynman diagrams, Dirac equation, gauge invariance, quantum electrodynamics and, if time permits, an introduction to nonabelian gauge theories and weak interactions.
PHY489H This course surveys the experimental basis and theoretical framework of the "Standard Model" of Particle Physics and its possible extensions. Topics include the standard electroweak model, scattering and parton distributions, strong interactions and quantum chromodynamics.
PHY490H Introductory aspects of Nuclear Physics and quantum chromodynamics, nuclear force, bulk properties of nuclei, nuclear transitions, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions.
PHY491H Review of conventional, textbook quantum mechanics. Formal measurement theory and wave function collapse; quantum states and nonseparability, violation of local casuality, Bell theorems, "quantum tricks", decoherence and the emergence of classical behaviour. Hidden variables, deBroglieBohm theory and generalizations; manyworlds interpretation and other theories of "beables". Consistent histories approach of Omnes and GellMann and Hartle; nature of "True" and "Reliable" statements.
PHY492H Designed for students interested in the physics of the Earth and the planets but does not include geophysical prospecting. Provides a background for the study of the Earth as a unified dynamic system and includes topics related to: the determination of internal divisions in the planet; the age and thermal history of the planet; the Earth's gravitational field and the concept of isostasy; the development and evolution of the Earth's large scale surface features (plate tectonics, plate loading and flexure); mantle rheology; and geodetic measurement techniques.
PHY493H This course covers wavefield and ray approximation methods for imaging the interior of the Earth using seismology.
PHY494H How to investigate Earth structure at depths ranging from meters to tens of kilometers using gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic and nuclear geophysical methods. Current methodologies and the theoretical basis for them are presented.
PHY495H This course deals with the numerical analysis of data associated with space geodesy, earthquake seismology, geomagnetism and palaeomagnetism, isotope geochronology, as well as numerical simulations of a wide variety of geodynamic processes (e.g. mantle convection, postglacial rebound, Earth tides).
PHY496H A laboratory course (with introductory lectures) dealing with physical methods for exploring Earth structure; i.e., seismic, gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, and nuclear methods. It is designed to give "hands on" experience with the techniques of geophysical data analysis as well as data acquisition.
PHY497H Topics include: the equations of classical hydrodynamics: conservation of mass, momentum, and energy; Bernoulli's theorem; Ertel's theorem; nondimensional analysis, dynamics of stratifield flow: static stability; convection; shear flow instability and the MilesHoward theorem; internal gravity waves; gravity wave drag and EliassenPalm theorem; introduction to dynamics of rotating, stratified flow and baroclinic instability.
PHY498H Topics include: thermodynamics of water substances in the atmosphere; nucleation of liquid water in water vapour and condensation nuclei; nucleation of the ice phase and ice nuclei; growth of cloud droplets and ice particles; initiation of precipitation particles; precipitation processes; role of clouds in atmospheric circulations; effects of latent heat release in PV distribution; concept of CISK; examples of CISK driven systems.
PHY499H Topics include: review of radiation; satellite orbits; scanning geometries; remote sensing and the atmosphere effect; visible, microwave, and infrared techniques; remote sounding; scanning techniques; the retrieval problem; microwave, ultraviolet, and infrared techniques; advanced techniques.
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