Arts & Science Calendar 1998-99: Table of Contents: Programs and Courses
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GLG GEOLOGY


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Introduction

Geology means "Study of the Earth." This covers everything from the origin of the Earth and its position in the Solar System, to the physical, chemical and biological processes which have brought the Earth through its 4.5 billion year history to the present time, when society itself can be seen as an agent of geological change. Besides the fundamental studies of rocks, minerals and fossils, Geology is concerned with the exploration and responsible recovery of vital resources such as metalliferous ores, coal, petroleum, natural gas, industrial minerals and groundwater. An understanding of the way the Earth works is important to achieve effective protection of the environment. Hence, geologists are frequently employed in problems of urban development, water and soil pollution, waste disposal, earthquake and volcanic risk assessment, public policy and resource management.

Admission to Geology requires OAC Calculus while Chemistry, Algebra-Geometry and Physics are recommended. Biology is desirable for those students who intend to pursue a program in the Environmental Geosciences or Paleontology. Five Specialist Programs are offered: Geology, Environmental Geosciences, Paleontology, Geology and Physics, and Chemistry and Geology. Major and Minor programs are offered in Geology as well as a Major program in the Environmental Geosciences. Students are encouraged to discuss their plans on program and course selection with the Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies) or Program Supervisor.

The Professional Experience Year program ("PEY": see also Page 22) is available to eligible students after their third year of study. The PEY program is an optional 16-month work term which provides industrial experience; its length gives students the opportunity to enjoy the rewarding experience of initiating and completing a major project.

More information about undergraduate studies in Geology is contained in a booklet which is available from the departmental office (ESC 1066). Additional courses with geological content are listed in the Calendar of the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering.

Undergraduate Coordinator: TBA

Enquiries: Department of Geology, Earth Sciences Centre (978-3022)

Faculty Members

University Professor Emeritus
A.J. Naldrett, MA, M Sc, Ph D, FRSC

Professors Emeriti
G.M. Anderson, B Eng, MA Sc, Ph D D.H. Gorman, B Sc, Ph D
F.W. Beales, MA, Ph D E.W. Nuffield, BA, Ph D, FRSC
J.B. Currie, MA, Ph D J.C. Rucklidge, MA, Ph D
J. Gittins, M Sc, Ph D, Sc D (U) L.S. Russell, B Sc, MA, Ph D, LL D, FRSC
A.M. Goodwin, M Sc, Ph D, FRSC

Professor and Acting Chair of the Department
J.J. Fawcett, B Sc, Ph D

Professor
and Associate Chair (Graduate Studies)
A.D. Miall, B Sc, Ph D, D Sc, FRSC

Associate Professor and Associate Chair
(Undergraduate Studies)
F.G. Ferris, B Sc, Ph D

Professors
R.C. Bailey, B Sc, Ph D P-Y.F. Robin, M Sc, Ph D (E)
N. Eyles, M Sc, Ph D, D Sc (S) W.M. Schwerdtner, Dip Geol, Dr Rer Nat
*B. Greenwood, B Sc, Ph D (S) S.D. Scott, M Sc, Ph D, FRSC

H.C. Halls, M Sc, Ph D (E) E.T.C. Spooner, MA, Ph D (U)
K.W.F. Howard, M Sc, Ph D (S) J.C. Van Loon, B Sc, Ph D
*T.E. Krogh, M Sc, Ph D *P.H. von Bitter, MA, Ph D

*J.H. McAndrews, BS, Ph D J.A. Westgate, B Sc, Ph D (S)

G. Norris, MA, Ph D, FRSC (U) Associate Professors
A. Cruden, B Sc, Ph D (E) D.J. Schulze, M Sc, Ph D (E)
M.P. Gorton, B Sc, Ph D B. Sherwood Lollar, BA, Ph D
G.S. Henderson, M Sc, Ph D *F.J. Wicks, M Sc, D Phil

Assistant Professors
J.M. Brenan, B Sc, Ph D M. Douglas, M Sc, Ph D
*D. Davis, M Sc, Ph D

Lecturer
*D. Rudkin, B Sc

Senior Tutor

K. Kemp, M Sc

Special Lecturer

B. Murck, AB, Ph D (E)

Adjunct Professors
A. Mohajer, B Sc, Ph D (S)

* Cross-appointed

GEOLOGY PROGRAMS

An introductory 100-level course such as JGF 150Y or GLG 110H is strongly recommended for enrolment in all programs sponsored by the Department of Geology. No minimum GPA is required.

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOSCIENCES (B.Sc.)

Consult Professor F.G. Ferris, Department of Geology.

Specialist program (Hon.B.Sc.): S12531 (14.5 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: CHM 137Y/151Y/(132H, 133H); MAT 135Y/137Y; PHY 138Y/140Y
Second Year: CHM 222Y/238Y/240Y/ENV 235Y; ENV 234Y/GGR 201H/203H/205H/206H; GLG 206H, 207H, 216H, 217H
Third Year:
1. ENV 315H; GLG 340H, 351H
2. One FCE from: GLG 318H, 360H, 365H, 345H
3. One FCE from: BIO 368Y, 369Y; BOT 251Y; CHM 310H, 347H; GGR 305H, 312H, 337H; JPA 310H; ZOO 367H, 375H
Forth Year:
1. GLG 448H, 450H
2. One FCE from: BOT 430H, 434H; CHM 410H; GGR 402H; JGP 438H; JPA 400Y; JGB 404H
3. Two FCEs to be picked from groups A, B, or C with no more than one FCE from each group. Group D may be substituted in any of Groups A - C.

Group A: GLG 402H, 429H, 435H, 436H

Group B: GLG 423H, 440H

Group C: GLG 442H, 443H

Group D: GLG 470Y/471H

Major program Major program: M12531 (8 full courses or their equivalent)
First Year: CHM 137Y/151Y/(132H, 133H); MAT 135Y/137Y; PHY 138Y/140Y
Second Year:
1. GLG 206H, 207H, 216H, 217H
2. One FCE from: ENV 234Y, 235Y; GGR 201H, 203H, 205H, 206H
Third and Fourth Years: ENV 315H; GLG 351H, 340H, 360H/365H

GEOLOGY (B.Sc.)

Consult Professor F.G. Ferris, Department of Geology, Earth Sciences Centre.

Specialist program (Hon.B.Sc.): S05091 (14 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: CHM 137Y/151Y/(132H, 133H); MAT 135Y/137Y; PHY 138Y/140Y
Second Year: GLG 206H, 207H, 216H, 217H; CHM 238Y/240Y/ENV 235Y
Third Year: GLG 318H, 319H, 340H, 345H, 351H, 360H, 365H; ENV 315H
Forth Year: Four FCEs to be picked from groups A, B, C, D or E with no more than one FCE from each group. Group F may be substituted in any of Groups A - E.

Group A: GLG 402H, 429H, 435H, 436H

Group B: GLG 442H, 443H

Group C: JGP 438H, 445H

Group D: GLG 448H, 450H

Group E: GLG 423H, 440H

Group F: GLG 470Y/471H

Major program Major program: M12531 (8 full courses or their equivalent)
First Year: CHM 137Y/151Y/(132H, 133H); MAT 135Y/137Y; PHY 138Y/140Y
Second Year: GLG 206H, 207H, 216H, 217H
Higher Years: GLG 318H, 319H, 340H, 345H/360H, 365H/351H; ENV 315H

Minor program Minor program: R05091 (4 full courses or their equivalent)
1. JGF 150Y
2. Three GLG full course equivalents of which one full course or equivalent is at the 300/400-level

NOTE: Some GLG courses have CHM/MAT/PHY prerequisites

GEOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY — See CHEMISTRY

GEOLOGY AND PHYSICS (B.Sc.)

Consult Departments of Geology and Physics

Specialist program (Hon.B.Sc.): S16501 (14 full courses or their equivalent with at least one course at the 400-level)
First Year: CHM 137Y/151Y/(132H, 133H); MAT 137Y; PHY 140Y
Second Year: GLG 206H, 207H; MAT 237Y, 244H; PHY 225H, 251H, 255H
Third Year:
1. APM 346H; GLG 216H, 217H, 345H; PHY 351H, 352H
2. One half-course from: PHY 305H/307H
Forth Year:
1. GLG 340H
2. 1.5 300/400-series GLG courses
3. 1.5 300/400-series PHY courses

NOTE:
1. Students are encouraged to select courses on the basis of a coherent theme such as Exploration Geology and Geophysics, Global Tectonics, or Environmental Geodynamics.
2. Students are required to register with the Departments and have their programs approved.

PALEONTOLOGY (B.Sc.)

Consult Professor G. Norris, Department of Geology

Specialist program (Hon.B.Sc.): S10041 (13.5 full courses or their equivalent with at least one course at the 400-level)
First Year: BIO 150Y; CHM 137Y; MAT 135Y/JMB 170Y
Second Year: ANT 203Y/ZOO 263Y; GLG 206H, 207H, 216H, 217H
Third and Fourth Years:
1. GLG 340H, 365H; JGB 310H; ANT 332Y/(ZOO 362H, 366H)
2. One full course or equivalent in paleontological research from the following:

ANT 498H, 499H/BOT 460Y/GLG 470Y/ZOO 498Y
3. 3.5 courses from the following: BOT 430H; GLG 351H, 402H, 429H, 435H, 436H; ZOO 364H, 365H, 367H, 462H

GEOLOGY COURSES

(see Section 4 for Key to Course Descriptions)

For Distribution Requirement purposes, all GLG courses are classified as SCIENCE courses.

SCI199Y
First Year Seminar 52T

Undergraduate seminar that focuses on specific ideas, questions, phenomena or controversies, taught by a regular Faculty member deeply engaged in the discipline. Open only to newly admitted first year students. It may serve as a breadth requirement course; see First Year Seminars: 199Y.

GLG100H
Elementary Mineralogy 26L

The natural materials of the Earth's crust: crystals, minerals, gemstones, rocks and their role in society throughout the ages; designed for students who are not Geology specialists. Examination of minerals in a practical session.

GLG100H
is primarily intended as a science Distribution Requirement course for Humanities and Social Science students

GLG103H
Geology in Public Issues 26L

Impact of geology on issues of current national and international concern such as consequences, prediction and control of volcanism and earthquakes; pollution; disposal of hazardous wastes; human and environmental health; natural catastrophes and extinctions; monitoring nuclear test ban treaties; life on Mars?

GLG103H
is primarily intended as a science Distribution Requirement course for Humanities and Social Science students, and Engineering students

GLG105H
Evolution of the Earth: Controversy over the last 2300 Years 26L

The evolution of ideas about the origin and development of the earth from the Athenians to the 20th Century. With attention on whether the earth has an infinite or a finite life; on the evolution and disappearance of species; on the origin of oceans, continents and mountains; on the forces that have shaped the earth's surface; and on the courage of scientists in confronting the religious and political views of their time.

GLG105H
is primarily intended as a science Distribution Requirement course for Humanities and Social Science students

GLG110H
Introductory Geology 26L

The nature and evolution of the Earth; plate tectonics; rocks and minerals; volcanism; geological time; fossils; geology of Ontario; environmental issues. Examination of hand specimens and a field trip.
Exclusion: GLG140H, JGF150Y

GLG110H
is primarily intended as a science Distribution Requirement course for Humanities and Social Science students; it could also serve as an introduction to Geology programs

GLG130H
Exploration of the Solar System 26L

Scientific findings of the solar system exploration program and their application to the origin of the earth and solar system; space resources; search for life on other planets.
Prerequisite: One OAC Science

JGF150Y
The Earth Sciences 52L, 24P

An introduction to planet Earth; to the processes at work in its interior, on its surface and in its atmosphere and biosphere, and to its 4.6 billion-year history. Laboratory exercises and a field trip introduce students to the geological history, rocks, landforms, soils and vegetation of southern Ontario.
Exclusion: GLG110H, 140H, GGR100Y
Prerequisite: One OAC Science or permission of course coordinator
Recommended preparation: OAC Algebra-Geometry, Physics/Biology/Chemistry

GLG205H
Confronting Global Change 26L

The emergence of society as a major geological force is considered in terms of the evolving debate about the consequences of human activity for the habitability of our planet. Major issues such as climate change, environmental pollution, and depletion of natural resources are examined.

GLG205H
is primarily intended as a science Distribution Requirement course for Humanities and Social Science students

GLG206H
Materials of the Earth 26L, 39P

An overview of the structural, chemical and optical properties of minerals. Laboratories on the identification of minerals in hand specimen and thin section. An overnight field trip to Bancroft and a daytrip to the Niagara Escarpment.
Exclusion: GLG219H, 221H
Prerequisite: CHM137Y/151Y/(132H, 133H)
Recommended preparation: JGF150H

GLG207H
Rock-forming Processes 26L, 39P

Origin and classification of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks and their associated ore deposits. Emphasis is placed on rock types in the context of plate tectonic theory, and the practical aspects of rock identification in hand sample and thin section.
Exclusion: GLG219H, 221H
Prerequisite: GLG206H

GLG216H
Dynamic Geology 26L, 39P

A survey of principal physical processes that shape and transform the continents and oceans of the Earth's crust, with examples from North America. Laboratories in field geology and elementary mapping techniques, interpretation of geologic maps, and exercises in structural geography.
Exclusion: GLG201H, 245H
Prerequisite: CHM137Y/151Y/(132H, 133H)
Recommended preparation: JGF150H

GLG217H
Earth Evolution 26L, 39P

An introduction to evolution of the biosphere from the Earth's early differentiation in the Solar System to the emergence of humans. Major features of paleoclimatic change are related to physico-chemical and biological interactions at the Earth's surface. Laboratories address major types of animal and plant fossils and living analogues and homologues.
Exclusion: GLG229H
Prerequisite: GLG216H

ENV234Y
Environmental Biology (formerly JED234Y) (See ENV "Division of the Environment")

GLG299Y
Research Opportunity Program

Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. See Research Opportunity Program for details.

JGB310H
Evolution of Fossil Plants 26L, 39P

The fossil record of vascular plants using macroscopic and microscopic methods. Stratigraphic, paeleoecologic, and evolutionary significance of fossil plants. Practicals involve demonstrations and independent projects.
Recommended preparation: ENV310H, GLG201H/216H, 217H

ENV315H
Chemical Analysis of Environmental Samples (See ENV "Division of the Environment")

GLG318H
Igneous Processes 26L, 39P

Examination of the processes responsible for the diversity of igneous rocks. Emphasis is on the fundamental thermodynamics and kinetics of igneous systems and their role in crystallization, melting, and magmatic behaviour such as immiscibility, assimilation and mixing. Laboratories focus on textures, mineralogy, composition and field relationships.
Prerequisite: GLG202H/206H, 221H/207H

GLG319H
Metamorphic Processes 26L, 39P

Descriptive petrography and classification of metamorphic rocks; metamorphic processes and evolution of metamorphic rocks; interpretation of metamorphic rocks.
Prerequisite: GLG318H

GLG340H
Field Course I: White Fish Falls - Manitoulin Island

Two- week field course in May concentrates on a wide range of geological field techniques on the north shore of Lake Huron, around the village of White Fish Falls. Methods include geological mapping, stratigraphic section measurement, use of compass-clinometers, note and sample taking and the application of computers in field geology.

This is a summer session course and students must also register with the Department in the preceding term. Each student must pay the cost of transportation and accommodation.
Prerequisite: GLG201H, 221H, 229H/245H or GLG207H, 216H, 217H

GLG345H
Structural Geology and Geomechanics 26L, 39P

Analysis of geological structures on various scales, using the concepts of displacement, stress and strain. Deformation at convergent plate margins and in transpression/transtension zones. Fold mechanics and pluton emplacement. Application of modern structural methods in geotechnical engineering and economic geology.
Exclusion: GLG332H
Prerequisite: GLG216H/245H

GLG351H
Geochemical and Biological Regulation of Aqueous Systems 39L, 26P

An introduction to aqueous environmental geochemistry emphasising the importance of chemical equilibria, mass transport, and microbiological activity in regulating the chemical composition of natural and contaminated systems.
Exclusion: JGG350H
Prerequisite: CHM137Y/151Y/(132H, 133H); and any 2nd year science course

GLG360H
Earth Surface Systems and the Lithosphere 26L, 39P

An introduction to the methods for studying sedimentary rocks in surface and subsurface. Petrographic description and classification of sedimentary rocks are dealt with in lectures and laboratory exercises, followed by a treatment of the principles of stratigraphic documentation and correlation, facies-analysis methods, and a brief description of depositional systems.
Exclusion: GLG229H
Prerequisite: GLG207H/221H, 201H/216H

GLG365H
Earth Surface Systems and the Biosphere 26L, 39P

An introduction to paleontology, paleoenvironments, and paleoclimatic changes. The use of fossils and sediments for paleoecologic analysis. Systematics, macroscopic identification, and biostratigraphy of principal groups of Late Proterozoic-Phanerozoic invertebrate fossils.
Exclusion: GLG229H
Prerequisite: GLG217H

GLG402H
Basin Analysis 26L, 13P

Architecture and evolution of sedimentary basins in relation to plate tectonic setting and crustal properties. Sequence stratigraphy. Eustatic and tectonic controls of sedimentation. Review of global plate kinematics and basin styles. Distribution of petroleum and coal resources. (Offered in alternate years to GLG429H))
Prerequisite: GLG245H, 301H, 306H

JGB404H
Biogeochemistry II 26L, 13P

Ecosystem analysis at the watershed level is used to evaluate and predict the impact of natural and human disturbances on the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. (Offered by the Departments of Geography, Geology, and Botany)
Prerequisite: GLG351H/JGG350H

GLG423H
Mineralogy (formerly GLG323H) 39L

Crystal chemistry of the major rock forming minerals. The course covers the underlying concepts behind the behaviour of minerals as solid-state materials including: Structure and bonding of minerals, chemical substitutions and solid-state transformations, high temperature and pressure behaviour, chemical weathering and kinetics.
Prerequisite: GLG206H, 219H

GLG429H
Sedimentology and Sequence Stratigraphy 26L, 13P

Depositional environments and facies of clastic and chemical sediments, including examination of nonmarine and marine clastics, reefs and other shelf carbonates. Models of evaporite sedimentation. Sedimentology of coal and petroleum. Models of stratigraphic sequences and the response of depositional systems to base-level change. (Offered in alternate years to GLG402H)
Prerequisite: GLG301H

GLG435H
Stratigraphic Palynology 26L, 39P

The plant microfossil record in the Phanerozoic and its application to stratigraphy. Organic-walled microfossils of marine and terrestrial origin are systematically studied in the laboratory to illustrate evolution, paleophytogeography, and stratigraphic correlation potential on a global scale.
Exclusion: GLG433H, 434H
Prerequisite: GLG201H/216H
Recommended preparation: JGB310H

GLG436H
Paleoecological Assessment of Environmental Change 26L, 39P

The use of proxy data (terrestial and aquatic microfossils) to infer past environmental conditions. The nature and extent of Quaternary environmental change is considered in the context of assessing current issues such as acidification, metal pollution, eutrophication and global climate change. Paleoenvironmental techniques are applied in the laboratory.
Prerequisite: A 200-level course from one of BIO, GGR, GLG
Recommended preparation: BIO368H/369Y/GLG201H/216H

JGP438H
Shallow Crust Geophysics 26L, 52P

An introduction to the geophysical exploration of the subsurface. Topics include gravity, seismic, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic surveying and their application in prospecting, hydrogeology, and environmental assessments.
Prerequisite: GLG306H, PHY138Y/140Y or permission of instructor

GLG440H
Advanced Petrology 26L, 39P

Integrated field, experimental and theoretical approaches to understanding the petrological diversity of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Topics include development of thermobarometers for igneous and metamorphic rocks, the importance of oxygen fugacity in petrogenesis, melting/solidification and metamorphism and igneous activity in the context of global tectonics.
Prerequisite: GLG318H, 319H

GLG442H
Mineral Deposits I 26L, 39P

Geology and geochemistry of magmatically related ore deposits, principally Ni, Cu, Pt group, Cr, including porphyry Cu deposits. Use of S, O and H isotopes and fluid inclusions in mineral deposit geology. Origin and interpretation; systematic ore mineralogy, in hand specimen and reflected light microscopy.
Prerequisite: GLG202H/207H, 318H

GLG443H
Mineral Deposits II 26L, 39P

Hydrothermal ore deposits: Archean and epithermal Au-Ag, volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits, and sedimentary-sequence-hosted Pb-Zn, and U deposits. Subaerial and submarine active geothermal systems. Metamorphism/deformation of ore deposits. Practicals: selected ore suits; computer methods for processing 3D ore system data.
Prerequisite: GLG319H, 442H

GLG445H
Field Course II: Tweed

A two-week course in early May. Emphasis on field mapping and interpretation of a portion of the Grenville Province of the Canadian Shield near Tweed, Ontario; excursions to introduce a wider variety of geology. Students are responsible for the cost of board and lodging and transport to and from the field area.

This is a summer session course and students must also register with the Department during their preceeding term.
Prerequisite: GLG319H, 332H/345H

GLG448H
Field Course III: Chalk River

A two-week course in late summer designed to familiarize students in a variety of hydrogeological and biogeochemical field techniques; based at Atomic Energy Canada Laboratories, Chalk River, and includes a mixture of lecture, laboratory and field exercises. Students are responsible for the cost of board and lodging and transport to and from the field area.

This is a summer session course and students must also register with the Department during their preceeding term.
Prerequisite: GLG355H or permission of instructor

GLG450H
Contaminant Fate and Transport in Subsurface Environments 26L, 39P

Drawing primarily on examples from hydrogeology, this course explores physicochemical constraints on reactive contaminant transport, and surveys applications of isotopic techniques to identify sources of contaminants, trace transport pathways and evaluate attenuation processes.
Exclusion: GLG355H, 455H
Prerequisite: ENV315H, GLG351H

GLG470Y
Research Project TBA

Laboratory research emphasizing methods and experimental techniques applicable to geology. Students must obtain the consent of an instructor and register with the Undergraduate Coordinator before enrolling and are urged to do so toward the end of their Third Year. Students are required to give an oral presentation of research results to an open meeting of the Department.
Exclusion: GLG471H
Prerequisite: Completion of the required 300-level courses in a specialist program involving Geology and permission of the Department

GLG471H
Research Project TBA

Laboratory research emphasizing methods and experimental techniques applicable to geology. Students must obtain the consent of an instructor and register with the Undergraduate Coordinator before enrolling and are urged to do so toward the end of their Third Year. Students are required to give an oral presentation of research results to an open meeting of the Department.
Exclusion: GLG470Y
Prerequisite: Completion of the required 300-level courses in a specialist program involving Geology and permission of the Department


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Revised: April 6, 1998

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