Arts & Science Calendar 1998-99: Table of Contents: Programs and Courses
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BIOLOGY


On this page: Introduction | Programs | Courses
See also: Course Summer Timetable | Course Winter Timetable | More on Department

Introduction

Given by Members of the Departments of Botany and Zoology

Students are advised to consult courses listed by these Departments.

Biology is the scientific study of life. At no time in history has biology been so visible and so important to human life and the future of our planet than at the present. The study of biology has vast applications — in understanding one's own body, in grappling with the ethical questions that face us as citizens, and in understanding the interdependent web of living organisms on the planet and our need to help protect the delicate ecological balance that sustains us all. Today the biological sciences are experiencing a revolution. Important discoveries occur almost weekly as scientists and their students around the world develop and use new techniques, theories, and approaches.

The University of Toronto has hundreds of faculty conducting research and teaching courses in the biological sciences. Within the Faculty of Arts and Science, St. George campus, biology courses are taught by members of the departments of Botany and Zoology. There is no single biology department. Each department offers its own programs and courses, but also jointly teaches Biology courses. Biology courses are available in the subject areas of behaviour, evolution, ecology, cell and molecular biology, and genetics. In addition, there are courses offering a field experience for students of Biology, Botany or Zoology. Students should consult the Biology, Botany and Zoology entries in this Calendar. Since many areas of biology draw on mathematics and the physical sciences, a background in mathematics, chemistry and physics is recommended for students interested in the study of biology.

Students entering their first year in the life sciences typically take BIO 150Y. BIO 150Y is taken by students who have successfully completed OAC Biology (or an equivalent course) and is a prerequisite for almost all further courses in the life sciences. All students, regardless of campus or Faculty, must abide by the stated course prerequisites and exclusions.

Counselling: Botany Undergraduate Office, Earth Sciences Centre, Room 3055A, (978-7172) or Zoology Undergraduate Office, Room 019, Ramsay Wright Zoological Laboratories (978-2084)

ANIMAL USE IN LABORATORIES

Laboratory investigations are part of life science programs at the University of Toronto. Programs in life sciences at the University of Toronto include courses that involve observation, handling, or experimentation on animals or on samples derived from animals. The use of animals in teaching and research is regulated by ethical and procedural guidelines and protocols. These are approved on an ongoing basis by the University Animal Care Committee, and follow provincial and federal government rules. We recognize, however, that some students may have strong reservations about personal exposure to any use of animal material in teaching. Students who want to avoid registration in programs or courses that include such labs are, therefore, encouraged to check in advance with the departments involved.

BIOLOGY PROGRAMS

Enrolment in the Biology programs requires completion of four courses; no minimum GPA is required.

BIOLOGY (B.Sc.)

Consult Departments of Zoology and Botany.

NOTES:
1. Students taking this Program must enrol through the Botany Undergraduate Office, Room 3055a, Earth Sciences Centre or the Zoology Undergraduate Office, Room 019, Ramsay Wright Zoological Laboratories.
2. Other sciences, particularly Chemistry and Mathematics, are essential for most advanced work in Biology.

Specialist program (Hon.B.Sc.): S23641 (13 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: BIO 150Y; CHM 137Y/151Y; JMB 170Y/MAT 135Y/137Y/157Y

See also Higher Years Group 1. below. (In selecting 100-series CHM and MAT courses, students should consider prerequisites for courses they intend to take in higher years.)
Higher Years:
1. Any two of CHM 240Y/248Y; JGF 150Y; PHY 110Y/138Y/140Y;

GGR 270Y/PSY (201H, 202H)/STA 220H, (221H/JBS 229H)/(250H, 255H)/(250H, 257H) (One of the two courses selected here could also be taken in First Year)
2. BIO 250Y, 260H; BOT 251Y; ZOO 252Y
3. One 200+ series half-course from BIO, BOT, ENV 234Y, HPS (323H, 333H), JLM, JZM, JZP, MGB 312H, ZOO (excluding BOT 202Y, ZOO 200Y, 214Y)
4. One 300+ series BOT course
5. One of BIO 494Y, 495Y, ZOO 480Y - 496Y
6. One additional 400- series BOT/HPS (323H, 333H) /300+ series ZOO
7. Any 300+ series course in ANA, BCH, BIO, BOT, HPS (323H, 333H), IMM, JLM, JZM, JZP, MGB, MPL, PSL, or ZOO

Major program Major program: M23641 (8 full courses or their equivalent)
First Year: BIO 150Y; CHM 137Y/151Y
Higher Years:
1. BIO 250Y; BOT 251Y; ZOO 252Y
2. One 200+ series course from BIO, BOT, ENV 234Y, HPS (323H, 333H), JLM, JZM, JZP, MGB 312H, ZOO (excluding BOT 202Y, ZOO 200Y, 214Y)
3. Two 300+ level courses in: ANA, BCH, BIO, BOT, HPS (323H, 333H), IMM, JLM, JZM, JZP, MGB, MPL, PSL, or ZOO

Minor program Minor program: R23641 (4 full courses or their equivalent)
1. BIO 150Y
2. BIO 250Y/BOT 251Y/ZOO 252Y
3. One course from BIO (except BIO 100Y), BOT (excluding BOT 202Y), ENV 234Y, MGB 460H
4. One course from BIO (except BIO 100Y), ENV 234Y, HPS (323H, 333H), JLM, JZM, JZP, MGB 312H, ZOO (excluding ZOO 200Y, 214Y)

NOTE: One of the courses chosen from 3. or 4. must be at the 300+ level.

BIOLOGY AND PHYSICS (Hon.B.Sc.)

Consult Departments of Physics and Zoology.

NOTE: Students taking this Program must enrol annually through the Zoology Undergraduate Office, Room 019, Ramsay Wright Zoological Laboratories.

Specialist program: S07521 (15 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: BIO 150Y; CHM 137Y/151Y; MAT 135Y/137Y/157Y; PHY 138Y/140Y
Second Year: BIO250Y, 260H; BOT 251Y/ZOO 252Y; CHM 240Y/248Y; MAT 235Y/237Y; PHY 238Y/(251H, 255H)
Third and Fourth Years:
1. MAT 244H; PHY 256H, 346H
2. The equivalent of at least 4 courses from the following, including at least one course in PHY and a half-course in ZOO, with at least one course at the 300+ level and one at the 400-level:

BCH 310H, 321Y; BOT 251Y, 421H; CHM 346H, 347H; JLM 349H; PHY 305H, 405H, 406H, 445H; PSL 302Y, 303Y, 372H, 424H; ZOO 252Y, 332H, 346H, 350H, 364H, 365H, 485Y

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (Hon.B.Sc.)

Consult the Departments of Zoology and Botany.

Enrolment in this program requires completion of four courses, including BIO 150Y; CHM137Y/151Y; MAT 135Y/137Y/JMB 170Y; no minimum GPA is required.

NOTE: Students taking the Program must enrol annually through the Botany Undergraduate Office, Room 3055A, Earth Science Centre.

Specialist program: S13051 (12.5 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: BIO 150Y; CHM 137Y/151Y; MAT 135Y/137Y/157Y/JMB 170Y
Higher Years:
1. BIO 250Y, 260H; BOT 251Y/ZOO 252Y; CHM 240Y/248Y
2. BCH 310H, JLM 349H/(BCH 321Y*, MGB 311Y*)
3. Three courses from: ANA 301H, BOT 340H, 341H, 421H; MGB 312H, 420H, 425H, 450H, 460H, 470H; ZOO 327H, 328H, 329H, 330H, 426H
4. Two courses from BOT 460Y; ZOO 482Y, 488Y, 498Y * To be eligible for MGB 311Y and BCH 321Y, students must also complete: CHM 223Y/(229H, 327Y)

ECOLOGY (Hon.B.Sc.)

Consult Departments of Zoology and Botany.

Specialist program: S10821 (14 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: BIO 150Y; CHM 137Y/151Y; JMB 170Y/MAT 135Y/137Y/157Y
Higher Years:
1. BIO 250Y; 260H; BOT 251Y/ZOO 252Y; ENV 234Y
2. GGR 270Y/PSY (201H, 202H)/STA 220H, (221H/JBS 229H)/STA (250H, 255H)/(250H, 257H)
3. BIO 301H/302H/303H/306H/307H/308H/369Y/ZOO 304H/309Y/361H; BIO 320Y, 494Y/495Y; ZOO 324Y
4. Three courses from: ANT 428H, BIO (except BIO 100Y), BOT (except BOT 202Y), CHM, ENV 235Y, GGR, GLG, HPS (323H, 333H), JLM, JZM, JZP, MAT, PHY, STA, ZOO (except ZOO 200Y, 214Y) with at least 1.5 courses at the 300+ level. Of the three courses, one must be from: BIO 368H/369Y/395H/BOT 434H/ENV 235Y/GGR 305H/310H/ZOO 322H/373H/375H/477Y

Recommended courses for this program include:

BIO 460H; BOT 430H; ENV 315H; GGR 314H, 337H, 373H, 393H, 401H, 409H, 462H; GLG 351H, 450H; JZM 357H, 358H, JZP 326H, 428H; ZOO 333H, 360H, 362H, 366H, 384H, 386H, 388H

NOTE: Students are encouraged to group their options around a theme. The Handbooks of the Departments of Botany and Zoology have examples of a number of potential themes.

EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY (Hon.B.Sc.)

Consult Departments of Zoology and Botany.

Specialist program: S13631 (13 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: BIO 150Y; CHM 137Y/151Y; JMB 170Y/MAT 135Y/137Y/157Y
Higher Years:
1. BIO 250Y; 260H; BOT 251Y/ZOO 252Y 2 CHM 240Y/248Y/GGR 270Y/PSY (201H, 202H)/STA 220H, (221H/JBS 229H)/STA (250H, 255H)/(250H, 257H)
3. CHM 222Y/240Y/248Y/GGR 270Y/GLG (110H, 216H)/MAT 235Y/239Y/PHY 110Y/138Y/PSY 100Y/(201H, 202H)/STA 220H, (221H/JBS 229H)/STA (250H, 255H)/(250H, 257H)
4. BIO 320Y, ZOO 324Y, 362H
5. Three courses from: ANT 428H, BIO, BOT, ENV 234Y, HPS (323H, 333H), JGB 310H, JLM, JZM, JZP, ZOO (except ZOO 200Y, 214Y). Of the three courses, one must be from: BIO 301H/302H/303H/306H/307H/308H/369Y/ZOO 304H/309Y/361H, and one from: BIO 494Y, 495Y, ZOO 480Y - 496Y (BIO 494Y is recommended), and at least one course at the 300+ level. BIO 459H, 460H, ZOO 462H are recommended for this program.

BIOLOGY COURSES

(see Section 4 for Key to Course Descriptions)

For Distribution Requirement purposes, all BIO and Joint BIO courses are classified as SCIENCE courses.

BIO150Y
Organisms in their Environment 52L, 39P

Evolutionary, ecological, and behavioural responses of organisms to their environment at the level of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. A prerequisite for advanced work in biological sciences.
Prerequisite: OAC Biology or equivalent. Students without high school Biology are advised to consult the Zoology Undergraduate Office.

JMB170Y
Biology, Models, and Mathematics 78L

Applications of mathematics to biological problems in physiology, biomechanics, genetics, evolution, growth, population dynamics, cell biology, ecology and behaviour.
Prerequisite: OAC Biology
Co-requisite: BIO150Y

JBS229H
Statistics for Biologists 39L, 13T

Continuation of STA220H, jointly taught by Statistics and Biology faculty, emphasizing methods and case studies relevant to biologists including experimental design and ANOVA, regression models, categorical and non-parametric methods.
Exclusion: ECO220Y/227Y/GGR270Y/PSY201H/SOC201Y/STA221H/222Y/242Y/250H/255H/257H
Prerequisite: STA220H

ENV234Y
Environmental Biology (See "Division of the Environment")

BIO250Y
Cell and Molecular Biology 52L, 36P

An introduction to the structure and function of cells at the molecular level: key cellular macromolecules; transfer of genetic information; cell structure and function; cellular movement and division; modern investigative techniques. Consult web page for the most current information: //www/zoo.utoronto.ca/~bio250
Prerequisite: BIO150Y, CHM132H, 133H/135Y/137Y/151Y

BIO260H
Genetics 39L, 13T

Classical and modern methods of genetic analysis in animal, plant, medical and microbial systems. Mendelian, quantitative, population and developmental genetics with emphasis on problem solving.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y
Co-requisite: BIO250Y

BIO301H
Marine Biology TBA

Offered in the summer at Huntsman Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, of about 14 days duration. Informal lectures and seminars with intensive field and laboratory work on different marine habitats and the animals and plants associated with them. Student projects included.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y and permission of instructor
Recommended preparation: Any 2nd year Ecology or Environmental Biology course

BIO302H
Arctic Ecosystems TBA

Offered in the summer at Churchill Northern Studies Centre, Churchill, Man. or Kluane Lake, Yukon, of approximately two weeks duration and comprising lectures, botanical and zoological field studies and other aspects of arctic ecosystems.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y and permission of instructor

BIO303H
Tropical Ecology and Evolution TBA

A field course to introduce students to the diversity of biological communities in the tropics focussing on ecological and evolutionary interactions. Plant and animal communities of tropical sites in the New World tropics are compared and contrasted with temperate communities. Students undertake small-scale research projects in the field.
Prerequisite: BIO150Yand any other life science course with a lab

BIO306H
Inter-University Field Courses TBA

Inter-university selections from the offerings of the Ontario Universities Program in Field Biology. Courses, of 1 or 2 weeks duration at field sites from May through August, are announced each January. Consult Professor A.P. Zimmerman, Zoology Department.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y and permission of instructor

BIO307H
Field Biology Modules TBA

One-week field modules; two required for credit. Information on modules and times available from the Departments of Botany or Zoology.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y and permission of instructor

BIO308H
Biodiversity and Ecology in Indochina TBA

Offered in the summer in Vietnam for approximately two weeks. Emphasis on arthopods, amphibians and reptiles with the possibility of other groups of animals and plants being studied. Comparisons of biodiversity of microhabitats in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at a single site.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y and permission of instructor
Recommended preparation: ZOO360H/384H/386H/388H

BIO320Y
Population and Community Ecology (formerly BIO315Y) 52L, 78P

A comprehensive survey of population and community ecology, emphasizing current developments and controversies. Field trips and computer exercises provide training in sampling, simulation, and data analysis.
Exclusion: BOT330Y; ZOO323Y
Prerequisite: BIO150Y and another life science course with a lab
Recommended preparation:ENV234Y; a course in Statistics

JLM349H
Eukaryotic Molecular Biology 22L, 16T

Genome organization and evolution, gene expression and regulation, differentiation and development. Consult web pages for details: http://www.zoo.utoronto.ca/~jlm349/
Exclusion: MGB311Y
Prerequisite: BIO250Y
Recommended preparation: BCH310H/320Y, BIO260H

BIO351Y
Introductory Virology 52L, 26T

An introduction to basic and medical virology. Attendance in tutorials is optional.
Exclusion: JBM351Y, 353Y
Prerequisite: BIO250Y

BIO368H
Lectures in Freshwater Ecology 52L

Physical, chemical and biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems including characteristics of lentic ("standing") and lotic ("running") waters. The importance of light, temperature, oxygen and chemical composition of water and sediments to plants and animals. Basic ecological principles are discussed through an overview of algae, vascular plants, microbes, invertebrates, and fish. No lab/field work required.
Exclusion: BIO369Y
Prerequisite: BIO150Y or permission of instructor
Recommended preparation: ENV234Y

BIO369Y
Introduction to Freshwater Ecology 52L, 104P

Physical, chemical and biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems including characteristics of lentic ("standing") and lotic ("running") waters. The importance of light, temperature, oxygen and chemical composition of water and sediments to plants and animals. Basic ecological principles are discussed through an overview of algae, vascular plants, microbes, invertebrates, and fish. Field work and a mandatory weekend field trip in the Fall are used to learn sampling procedures and to study lakes and streams in urban and rural environments. Field data are used to develop individual projects. Because of its large field component, BIO369Y can be used to fulfil a program's field course requirement.
Exclusion: BIO368H
Prerequisite: BIO150Y or permission of instructor
Recommended preparation: ENV234Y

BIO395H
Conservation Biology 26L, 13T

Teaches the principles and practices of conservation biology including biodiversity, rarity, exploitation, extinction, habitat fragmentation, gene pool, inbreeding and outbreeding, nature reserves, breeding programs, and the role of botanical gardens, zoos, and museums. Field trips and extra activities are required of each student.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y plus two other courses in behaviour, ecology and evolution
Recommended preparation: As many courses as possible in behaviour, ecology and evolution

BIO459H
Population Genetics 26L, 13T

Study of the genetics of evolutionary processes, with emphasis on the relationship between theory and experiment. Topics include natural selection, evolution of quantitative traits, genetic drift and neutral theory, population structure, genetics of adaptation, maintenance of genetic variation, and conservation genetics.
Prerequisite: BIO260H/ZOO324Y
Recommended preparation: JMB170Y/MAT135Y/137Y, STA220H or equivalent

BIO460H
Molecular Evolution 26L, 13T

Processes of evolution at the molecular level, and the analysis of molecular data. Gene structure, neutrality, nucleotide sequence evolution, sequence evolution, sequence alignment, phylogeny construction, gene families, transposition.
Prerequisite: BIO250Y, 260H

BIO494Y
Seminar in Evolutionary Biology 78T

The study of behaviour, ecology, evolution and genetics. Current research programs, special publications, and laboratory exposure are the basis for discussing issues. Discussions are lead by students. Each instructor is responsible for a separate module.
Prerequisite: Two of BIO320Y/459H/ZOO324Y

BIO495Y
Seminar in Ecology 78T

Student directed roundtable on current topics in ecology, with emphasis on aquatic systems. Critical reviews or other student presentations are based on current literature. Some seminars or other activities may be conducted at other departments/universities/government laboratories.
Prerequisite: BIO320Y/ENV234Y, and another course in ecology or evolutionary biology


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