On this page: Introduction | Programs | Courses
See also: Course Summer Timetable | Course Winter Timetable | More on Department
Given by Members of the Departments of Botany and Zoology
Students are advised to consult courses listed by these Departments.
Biology is the scientific study of life. At no time in history has biology been so visible and so important to human life and the future of our planet than at the present. The study of biology has vast applications in understanding one's own body, in grappling with the ethical questions that face us as citizens, and in understanding the interdependent web of living organisms on the planet and our need to help protect the delicate ecological balance that sustains us all. Today the biological sciences are experiencing a revolution. Important discoveries occur almost weekly as scientists and their students around the world develop and use new techniques, theories, and approaches.
The University of Toronto has hundreds of faculty conducting research and teaching courses in the biological sciences. Within the Faculty of Arts and Science, St. George campus, biology courses are taught by members of the departments of Botany and Zoology. There is no single biology department. Each department offers its own programs and courses, but also jointly teaches Biology courses. Biology courses are available in the subject areas of behaviour, evolution, ecology, cell and molecular biology, and genetics. In addition, there are courses offering a field experience for students of Biology, Botany or Zoology. Students should consult the Biology, Botany and Zoology entries in this Calendar. Since many areas of biology draw on mathematics and the physical sciences, a background in mathematics, chemistry and physics is recommended for students interested in the study of biology.
Students entering their first year in the life sciences typically take BIO 150Y. BIO 150Y is taken by students who have successfully completed OAC Biology (or an equivalent course) and is a prerequisite for almost all further courses in the life sciences. All students, regardless of campus or Faculty, must abide by the stated course prerequisites and exclusions.
Counselling: Botany Undergraduate Office, Earth Sciences Centre, Room 3055A, (978-7172) or Zoology Undergraduate Office, Room 019, Ramsay Wright Zoological Laboratories (978-2084)
ANIMAL USE IN LABORATORIES
Laboratory investigations are part of life science programs at the University of Toronto. Programs in life sciences at the University of Toronto include courses that involve observation, handling, or experimentation on animals or on samples derived from animals. The use of animals in teaching and research is regulated by ethical and procedural guidelines and protocols. These are approved on an ongoing basis by the University Animal Care Committee, and follow provincial and federal government rules. We recognize, however, that some students may have strong reservations about personal exposure to any use of animal material in teaching. Students who want to avoid registration in programs or courses that include such labs are, therefore, encouraged to check in advance with the departments involved.
Enrolment in the Biology programs requires completion of four courses; no minimum GPA is required.
BIOLOGY (B.Sc.)Consult Departments of Zoology and Botany.
Specialist program (Hon.B.Sc.): S23641
(13 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
See also Higher Years Group 1. below. (In selecting 100-series CHM and MAT courses, students should consider prerequisites for courses they intend to take in higher years.)
GGR 270Y/PSY (201H, 202H)/STA 220H, (221H/JBS 229H)/(250H, 255H)/(250H, 257H)
(One of the two courses selected here could also be taken in First Year)
Major program Major program: M23641 (8 full courses or their equivalent)
Minor program Minor program: R23641 (4 full courses or their equivalent)
NOTE: One of the courses chosen from 3. or 4. must be at the 300+ level.
BIOLOGY AND PHYSICS (Hon.B.Sc.)Consult Departments of Physics and Zoology.
NOTE: Students taking this Program must enrol annually through the Zoology Undergraduate Office, Room 019, Ramsay Wright Zoological Laboratories.
Specialist program: S07521 (15 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
BCH 310H, 321Y; BOT 251Y, 421H; CHM 346H, 347H; JLM 349H; PHY 305H, 405H, 406H, 445H; PSL 302Y, 303Y, 372H, 424H; ZOO 252Y, 332H, 346H, 350H, 364H, 365H, 485Y
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (Hon.B.Sc.)Consult the Departments of Zoology and Botany.
Enrolment in this program requires completion of four courses, including BIO 150Y; CHM137Y/151Y; MAT 135Y/137Y/JMB 170Y; no minimum GPA is required.
NOTE: Students taking the Program must enrol annually through the Botany Undergraduate Office, Room 3055A, Earth Science Centre.
Specialist program: S13051 (12.5 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
ECOLOGY (Hon.B.Sc.)Consult Departments of Zoology and Botany.
Specialist program: S10821 (14 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
Recommended courses for this program include:
BIO 460H; BOT 430H; ENV 315H; GGR 314H, 337H, 373H, 393H, 401H, 409H, 462H; GLG 351H, 450H; JZM 357H, 358H, JZP 326H, 428H; ZOO 333H, 360H, 362H, 366H, 384H, 386H, 388H
NOTE: Students are encouraged to group their options around a theme. The Handbooks of the Departments of Botany and Zoology have examples of a number of potential themes.
EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY (Hon.B.Sc.)Consult Departments of Zoology and Botany.
Specialist program: S13631 (13 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
For Distribution Requirement purposes, all BIO and Joint BIO courses are classified as SCIENCE courses.
Evolutionary, ecological, and behavioural responses of organisms to their environment at the level of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. A prerequisite for advanced work in biological sciences.
Applications of mathematics to biological problems in physiology, biomechanics, genetics, evolution, growth, population dynamics, cell biology, ecology and behaviour.
Continuation of STA220H, jointly taught by Statistics and Biology faculty, emphasizing methods and case studies relevant to biologists including experimental design and ANOVA, regression models, categorical and non-parametric methods.
An introduction to the structure and function of cells at the molecular level: key cellular macromolecules; transfer of genetic information; cell structure and function; cellular movement and division; modern investigative techniques. Consult web page for the most current information:
Classical and modern methods of genetic analysis in animal, plant, medical and microbial systems. Mendelian, quantitative, population and developmental genetics with emphasis on problem solving.
Offered in the summer at Huntsman Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, of about 14 days duration. Informal lectures and seminars with intensive field and laboratory work on different marine habitats and the animals and plants associated with them. Student projects included.
Offered in the summer at Churchill Northern Studies Centre, Churchill, Man. or Kluane Lake, Yukon, of approximately two weeks duration and comprising lectures, botanical and zoological field studies and other aspects of arctic ecosystems.
A field course to introduce students to the diversity of biological communities in the tropics focussing on ecological and evolutionary interactions. Plant and animal communities of tropical sites in the New World tropics are compared and contrasted with temperate communities. Students undertake small-scale research projects in the field.
Inter-university selections from the offerings of the Ontario Universities Program in Field Biology. Courses, of 1 or 2 weeks duration at field sites from May through August, are announced each January. Consult Professor A.P. Zimmerman, Zoology Department.
One-week field modules; two required for credit. Information on modules and times available from the Departments of Botany or Zoology.
Offered in the summer in Vietnam for approximately two weeks. Emphasis on arthopods, amphibians and reptiles with the possibility of other groups of animals and plants being studied. Comparisons of biodiversity of microhabitats in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at a single site.
A comprehensive survey of population and community ecology, emphasizing current developments and controversies. Field trips and computer exercises provide training in sampling, simulation, and data analysis.
Genome organization and evolution, gene expression and regulation, differentiation and development. Consult web pages for details: http://www.zoo.utoronto.ca/~jlm349/
An introduction to basic and medical virology. Attendance in tutorials is optional.
Physical, chemical and biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems including characteristics of lentic ("standing") and lotic ("running") waters. The importance of light, temperature, oxygen and chemical composition of water and sediments to plants and animals. Basic ecological principles are discussed through an overview of algae, vascular plants, microbes, invertebrates, and fish. No lab/field work required.
Physical, chemical and biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems including characteristics of lentic ("standing") and lotic ("running") waters. The importance of light, temperature, oxygen and chemical composition of water and sediments to plants and animals. Basic ecological principles are discussed through an overview of algae, vascular plants, microbes, invertebrates, and fish. Field work and a mandatory weekend field trip in the Fall are used to learn sampling procedures and to study lakes and streams in urban and rural environments. Field data are used to develop individual projects. Because of its large field component, BIO369Y can be used to fulfil a program's field course requirement.
Teaches the principles and practices of conservation biology including biodiversity, rarity, exploitation, extinction, habitat fragmentation, gene pool, inbreeding and outbreeding, nature reserves, breeding programs, and the role of botanical gardens, zoos, and museums. Field trips and extra activities are required of each student.
Study of the genetics of evolutionary processes, with emphasis on the relationship between theory and experiment. Topics include natural selection, evolution of quantitative traits, genetic drift and neutral theory, population structure, genetics of adaptation, maintenance of genetic variation, and conservation genetics.
Processes of evolution at the molecular level, and the analysis of molecular data. Gene structure, neutrality, nucleotide sequence evolution, sequence evolution, sequence alignment, phylogeny construction, gene families, transposition.
The study of behaviour, ecology, evolution and genetics. Current research programs, special publications, and laboratory exposure are the basis for discussing issues. Discussions are lead by students. Each instructor is responsible for a separate module.
Student directed roundtable on current topics in ecology, with emphasis on aquatic systems. Critical reviews or other student presentations are based on current literature. Some seminars or other activities may be conducted at other departments/universities/government laboratories.
All contents copyright ©, 1998. University of Toronto. All rights reserved.