Arts & Science Calendar 1998-99: Table of Contents: Programs and Courses
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BOTANY


On this page: Introduction | Faculty Members | Programs | Courses
See also: Course Summer Timetable | Course Winter Timetable | Secondary School Information | More on Department

Introduction

The part of biology that deals with plants and, by tradition, with the fungi and photosynthetic microorganisms, is called botany. We, and all other animals, are dependent on green plants and algae as the main source of our food and our oxygen. Knowledge of plant biology is essential not only for several professions, but also for solving some of society's most pressing problems: feeding our increasing populations and maintaining the earth's fragile ecosystems. Plant biology is an increasingly active research area, and the past decade has already brought major advances in understanding how plants function. Many new possibilities have been developed for the better use of plants by people, including the engineering of improved crops, weed control, plant breeding and the industrial production of plant-derived biochemicals such as anticancer drugs.

The areas of specialization within botany that address problems of importance to humans most directly include: Plant Biotechnology which uses molecular biology to exploit the genetic and biochemical potential of plants; Plant Pathology which is the study of plant diseases. Problems relating to the chemistry, physics and control of cellular processes are considered in the fields of Biochemistry, Development and Molecular Biology. The unique aspects of whole organisms are addressed also in Plant Development (multicellular plants) and in Mycology (fungi) and Phycology (algae). Ecology deals with the interaction of plants with their environment, while Evolutionary and Systematic Botany analyzes both the processes and products of evolution.

Many botany specialists find careers in government research laboratories, hospitals, museums, environmental consulting companies, agricultural product firms and, increasingly, with biotechnology research institutes and private companies. Others teach at either the secondary school or university level. Specialization in Botany or Biology at the undergraduate level is sufficient for some kinds of employment, while others require an advanced degree (M.Sc. or Ph.D.).

A student who wishes to specialize in Botany should seek advice from the Botany Undergraduate Office. Generally, a foundation in chemistry, mathematics and (usually) physics is advisable for the study of plant biology. It is also required that students take introductory courses dealing with three aspects of biology: 1) molecular/cellular (BIO 250Y), 2) organismal (BIO 251Y), and 3) ecological/evolutionary (BIO 150Y) before specializing further in a plant biology subdiscipline. The Department of Botany Undergraduate Office gives further information about courses and programs.

Associate Chair (Undergraduate): Professor J.R. Coleman, Room 4062, Earth Sciences Centre (978-2339)

Undergraduate Secretary: Earth Sciences Centre, Room 3055A (978-7172)

Faculty Members

University Professor Emeritus
J. Dainty, MA, D Sc, FRSC (N)

Professors Emeriti
R.F. Cain, MA, Ph D *J.H. McAndrews, MS, Ph D
*M.H. Hubbes, Dr Dipl Ing Agr Z.A. Patrick, B Sc, Ph D

*D. Kushner, M Sc, Ph D (U) J.C. Ritchie, Ph D, D Sc (S)

P.F. Maycock, M Sc, Ph D (E) J. Svoboda, B Sc, Ph D (E)

Professor and Acting Chair of the Department
V.J. Higgins, MS, Ph D

Associate Professor and Associate Chair
J.E. Eckenwalder, M Sc, Ph D

Professor
and Associate Chair
J.R. Coleman, B Sc, Ph D (U)

Professors
M.G. AbouHaidar, M Sc, Ph D J.A. Hellebust, MA, Ph D
J.B. Anderson, BA, Ph D (E) P.A. Horgen, MS, Ph D (E)
P.W. Ball, B Sc, Ph D (E) R.L. Jefferies, B Sc, Ph D
S.C.H. Barrett, B Sc, Ph D L.M. Kohn, B Sc, Ph D (E)
*T.J. Blake, MF, B Th, Ph D D.W. Malloch, MA, Ph D
E. Blumwald, M Sc, Ph D *J. McNeill, B Sc, Ph D
*R.A. Collins, B Sc, Ph D C. Nalewajko, B Sc, Ph D (S)
W.R. Cummins, B Sc, Ph D (E) N.A. Straus, M Sc, Ph D (U)
N.G. Dengler, MS, Ph D *V.R. Timmer, M Sc F, Ph D
F. DiCosmo, B Sc, Ph D J.P. Williams, B Sc, Ph D
M.C. Heath, B Sc, Ph D, FRSC

Associate Professors
T.J. Carleton, B Sc, Ph D P. McCourt, B Sc, Ph D
R.E. Dengler, BS, Ph D (S) C.D. Riggs, B Sc, Ph D (S)
*T.A. Dickinson, M Sc, Ph D R.F. Sage, MS,Ph D
G.S. Espie, B Sc, Ph D (E) D.A. Wedin, BA, Ph D
W.G. Filion, M Sc, Ph D (E)

Assistant Professors
T. Berleth, Ph D D.S. Hik, M Sc, Ph D (S)
R.K. Cameron, B Sc, Ph D P.M. Kotanen, M Sc, Ph D (E)
*M. Douglas, M Sc, Ph D T.L. Sage, MS, Ph D
*R. Fulthorpe, M Sc, Ph D (S) G. Vanlerberghe, B Sc, Ph D (S)
C.A. Hasenkampf, MS, Ph D (S)

Lecturer
J.C. Krug, M Sc, Ph D

Senior Tutors
*A.L. Cordon, B Sc C.A. Goldman, M Sc

* Cross-appointed

BOTANY PROGRAMS

BIOGEOGRAPHY — see end of BOTANY PROGRAM listings

BOTANY (B.Sc.)

Specialist program (Hon.B.Sc.): S23591 (12 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)

Enrolment in this program requires completion of four courses, including BIO 150Y and CHM 137Y/151Y; no minimum GPA is required.

First and Second Years: Group A, and two from Group B
Higher Years:
1. Group C
2. One 200+ level course in BIO, BOT (excluding BOT 202Y)
3. Two courses from: BOT 300+ series and Group D (NOTE: one or two other science courses may be accepted with Departmental approval)
4. Two BOT 400-series

Major program Major program: M23591 (8 full courses or their equivalent)

Enrolment in this program requires completion of four courses, including BIO 150Y and CHM 137Y/151Y and one 100-series course from CSC 108H, 148H/260H; MAT 135Y/137Y/JMB 170Y; PHY 110Y/138Y/140Y; no minimum GPA is required.
First Year: Group A, and one 100-series course from Group B
Higher Years:
1. BIO 250Y; BOT 251Y
2. One 200+ level course in BIO, BOT (excluding BOT 202Y), ENV 234Y
3. Two courses from BOT 300+ series and Group D

Minor program Minor program: R23591 (4 full courses or their equivalent)

Enrolment in this program requires completion of four courses, including BIO 150Y; no minimum GPA is required.
1. BIO 150Y; 251Y
2. Any two BIO/BOT/ENV/JLM courses of which one must be at the 300+ level (excluding BOT 202Y)

MOLECULAR PLANT BIOLOGY (Hon. B.Sc.)

Specialist program: S24161 (12.5 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)

Enrolment in this program requires completion of four courses, including BIO 150Y, CHM 137Y/151Y and MAT 135Y/137Y/JMB 170Y; no minimum GPA is required.
First Year: Group A, and MAT 135Y/137Y/JMB 170Y
Second Year: BIO 250Y, 260H; BOT 251Y; CHM 222Y, 240Y
Third and Fourth Years:
1. BCH 321Y, 430H; BOT 322Y; MGB 311Y, 460H
2. Two of BOT 301H, 302H, 340H, 351Y, 421H, BIO 351Y

PLANT PATHOLOGY (Hon. B.Sc.)

Enrolment in this program requires completion of four courses, including BIO 150Y and CHM 137Y/151Y; no minimum GPA is required. Specialist program: S10971 (11.5 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)

First and Second Years: Group A and two from Group B
Higher Years:
1. Group C
2. BOT 301H, 351Y, 452Y
3. BIO 351Y
4. One additional course from Group D or BOT 300+ series

NOTE: No Plant Pathology Major program exists, therefore a student may qualify for a Botany major after third year.

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY & METABOLISM (Hon. B.Sc.)

Specialist program: S15431 (10 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)

Enrolment in this program requires completion of four courses, including BIO 150Y and CHM 137Y/151Y; no minimum GPA is required.
First Year: BIO 150Y; CHM 132H,133H/137Y/151Y; MAT 135Y/137Y/JBM 170Y
Second Year: BIO 250Y, 251Y; CHM 240Y/241Y
Third & Fourth Years: BOT 322Y, 323H, 328H, 421H; BCH 310H; JLM 349H; MGB 460H

PLANT POPULATION BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION (Hon. B.Sc.)

Specialist program: S16361 (12 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)

Enrolment in this program requires completion of four courses, including BIO 150Y; no minimum GPA required.

First & Second Years: BIO 150Y; 2 courses from Groups A and B (excluding STA 220H, 221H, JBS 229H)
Higher Years:
1. Group C
2. BIO 460H, BOT 300H; two of STA 220H, 221H, JBS 229H; ZOO 324Y
3. Two courses from: BIO 301H, 302H, 303H, 306H, 307H, 308H; BOT 434H, 436H, 460Y, 462Y/463H; JGB 310H; MGB 460H; with one of these courses being at the 400-level

NOTE: one other science course may be accepted with Departmental approval

NOTE: No Plant Population Biology and Evolution Major program exists, therefore a student may qualify for a Botany major after third year Group A: BIO 150Y and CHM 132H, 133H/137Y/151Y Group B: CHM 240Y/241Y; CSC 108H, 148H/260H; MAT 135Y/137Y/JMB 170Y; PHY 110Y/138Y/140Y; two of STA 220H, 221H, JBS 229H

Group C: BIO 250Y; BOT 251Y; ENV 234Y

Group D: BIO 301H, 302H, 303H, 306H, 307H; BIO 351Y; BOT 460Y, 462Y/463H; JGB 310H; MGB 460H

BIOGEOGRAPHY (Hon. B.Sc.)

Consult the Undergraduate Secretary, Department of Botany, or the Student Counsellor, Department of Geography.

NOTE: Students taking the Program must enrol annually at the Botany Undergraduate Office, Room 3055A, Earth Science Centre.

Enrolment in this program requires completion of four courses, including BIO 150Y; GGR 100Y/JGF 150Y; CHM 137Y/151Y. At least one of MAT 135Y/137Y/JMB 170Y; PHY 110Y/138Y/140Y; no minimum GPA is required.

Specialist program: S16921 (13 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year:
1. BIO 150Y; GGR 100Y/JGF 150Y; CHM 132H, 133H/137Y/151Y
2. At least one of MAT 135Y/137Y/JMB 170Y/PHY 110Y/138Y/140Y

NOTE: Courses in all three of CHM, MAT, PHY will prove highly useful in many aspects of biogeography and may be prerequisites for some options in later years.
Second Year:
1. ENV 234Y; BOT 251Y; GGR 270Y/STA 220H, (221H/JBS 229H)
2. Two of GGR 201H, 203H, 205H, 206H
Third and Fourth Years:
1. BOT 300H/307H; GGR 305H, 310H
2. 3.5 full courses or their equivalent selected from the Third and Fourth Year options listed below. Of these 3.5 courses, at least two must be BIO/BOT/ZOO and at least one GGR

Third and Fourth Year options: BIO 301H, 302H, 303H, 306H, 307H, 320Y, 368H/369Y; BOT 300H, 307H, 360H, 430H, 434H, 460Y, 461H, 462Y/463H; GGR 201H, 203H, 205H, 206H, 302H, 307H, 312H, 390H, 391H, 393H, 402H, 409H, 490H, 491Y/498H; JGG 350H; JGB 310H, 404H; ZOO 304H, 324Y, 361H, 367H, 373H, 375H, 477Y, 498Y, 499Y

NOTE: Where a student's research interest warrants it, with permission of the Undergraduate Secretary of Botany, the student may fulfil the Third/Fourth Year course requirements by substituting one or two courses not listed in the options.

BOTANY COURSES

(see Section 4 for Key to Course Descriptions)

For Distribution Requirement purposes, all BIO and BOT courses, ENV 234Y, and JMB 170Y are classified as SCIENCE courses.

SCI199Y
First Year Seminar 52T

Undergraduate seminar that focuses on specific ideas, questions, phenomena or controversies, taught by a regular Faculty member deeply engaged in the discipline. Open only to newly admitted first year students. It may serve as a breadth requirement course; see First Year Seminars: 199Y.

BIO150Y
Organisms in Their Environment (See "Biology")

JMB170Y
Biology, Models, and Mathematics 52L, 26T

Applications of mathematics to biological problems in physiology, biomechanics, genetics, evolution, growth, population dynamics, cell biology, ecology and behaviour.
Prerequisite: Calc + OAC Biology
Co-requisite: BIO150Y

BOT202Y
Plants and Society 52L

The continuing impact of new scientific technologies on society through changes in agriculture, industry and the economy. Plant domestication, genetic resource conservation, environmental pollution, global warming, genetic engineering and biotechnology. Evaluation of the social implications of advances in modern plant science.
Exclusion: All BIO courses except BIO100Y; all BOT and ZOO courses except ZOO200Y, if taken previously or at the same time.

This course is intended primarily for Humanities and Social Science students

ENV234Y
Environmental Biology (formerly JED234Y) (See "Division of the Environment")

BIO250Y
Cell and Molecular Biology (See "Biology")

BOT251Y
Physiology of Plants and Micro-Organisms 52L, 78P

Structure and physiology of plants, fungi and bacteria. Emphasizes the similarities and differences among organisms in their response to their environment. Observational and experimental laboratories focus on the relationships between structure and physiology.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

BIO260H
Genetics (See "Biology")

BOT299Y
Research Opportunity Program

Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. See Research Opportunity Program for details.

BOT300H
Systematic Botany 26L, 39P

The theoretical foundations of taxonomy and the types of evidence used in constructing plant classifications. Practicals emphasize taxonomic characters and their uses. Includes an independent taxonomic project.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

BIO301H
Marine Biology (See "Biology")

BOT301H
Introduction to the Fungi 26L, 39P

Taxonomy, ecology, physiology, genetics, and importance to man. Techniques of isolation, identification, and manipulation.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y
Recommended preparation: BOT251Y

BIO302H
Arctic Ecosystems (See "Biology")

BIO305H
Tropical Communities (See "Biology")

BOT307H
Families of Vascular Plants 26L, 39P

Variation in morphology, predominant breeding systems, dispersal syndromes, and other features between families of vascular plants in the Ontario flora are examined. Students learn key characteristics for identification of important families of ferns, fern allies, conifers and flowering plants. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

BIO308H
Biodiversity and Ecology in Indochina (See "Biology")

BOT310H
Comparative Plant Morphology 26L, 39P

Evolutionary and structural relationships of organisms in the Kingdom Plantae are emphasized with attention placed on interpretation of comparative vegetative and reproductive morphology, structure and function. Lecture and laboratory topics include: 1) evolution of the land plant life cycle, the ovule/seed, and angiosperms; and 2) shoot architecture, heterophylly and anisophylly.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

JGB310H
Evolution of Fossil Plants (See "Geology")

BIO320Y
Population and Community Ecology (formerly BIO315Y) (See "Biology")

BOT322Y
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Photosynthesis 52L

The process of photosynthesis: chloroplast structure and development of light-harvesting systems, comparison of photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways, photorespiration, lipid and protein metabolism, structure and organization of the plant genome.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y, 250Y

BOT323H
Cellular Transport 26L, 26T

Transport of substances across plant and animal cell membranes. Elementary concepts of biophysics and bioenergetics combined to give a common framework for understanding the physiology of membrane transport in plants and animals. The course includes tutorials and lab demonstrations.
Prerequisite: CHM137Y/151Y, MAT135Y/137Y/JMB170Y

BOT328H
Physiological Ecology of Plants 26L, 39T

An advanced treatment of the physiological mechanisms controlling plant distribution and ecological success. Topics of focus include photosynthesis and carbon balance in natural environments, water and nutrient relations, plant-herbivore interactions, and adaptations to abiotic stress.
Prerequisite: BOT251Y or equivalent

BOT340H
Plant Development 26L

Developmental processes in plants at the molecular, cellular and organ level. Pattern formation during embryogenesis, cell interactions, leaf development, flowering, molecular basis of hormone action, with an emphasis on current research using developmental mutants.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y, 250Y
Recommended preparation: BOT251Y

BOT341H
Plant Anatomy 26L, 39P

The microscopic structure of plants with emphasis on the characteristics of cells and tissues, how they are formed from plant meristems and how they function in transport, photosynthesis, transpiration, absorption, and reproduction.
Prerequisite: BOT251Y

JLM349H
Eukaryotic Molecular Biology (See "Biology")

BIO351Y
Introductory Virology (See "Biology")

BOT351Y
Plant Pathology 52L, 78P

Basic and applied aspects of diseases of plants with emphasis on understanding the biology of the plant-pathogen interaction as a means of developing disease management strategies with minimum environmental impact. Lab practical provides training in basic techniques of "agricultural" microbiology and plant/pathogen interactions.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y, BIO250Y, BOT251Y

BOT360H
Analysis of Multivariate Data from Biological Experiments 26L, 39P

Introduction to the display and analysis of multivariate data from museum, field, and controlled environment studies in botany and forestry. Emphasis on the use of microcomputers to solve applied and multivariate problems.
Prerequisite: STA(220H, 221H/JBS229H)/242Y/262Y or equivalent

BIO368H
Lectures in Freshwater Ecology (See "Biology")

BIO369Y
Introduction to Freshwater Ecology (See "Biology")

BIO400H
Advanced Field Course in Ecology (See "Biology")

BIO401Y
Project in Marine Biology (See "Biology")

BOT404H
Biology of Moulds 26L, 39P

The biology of microscopic, non-parasitic fungi. The physiological and structural characteristics of moulds that allow them to locate, occupy and consume nutrient substrates in the face of environmental stresses and competition from other organisms. Techniques for assessing mould activities in natural and human environments. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: BOT251Y/301H

BOT405H
Parasitic and Mutualistic Fungi 26L, 39P

Biology of the fungal parasites of plants, other fungi, invertebrates and vertebrates (other than humans), and those involved in mutualisms such as mycorrhizae, lichens and foliar endophytism. Stress is laid on the physiological and structural features that characterize parasitic and mutualistic fungi and distinguish them from saprotrophs such as moulds and yeasts. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: BOT251Y/301H

BOT421H
Plant Cell Metabolism 26L, 13T

Advanced plant metabolism in relation to cell structure and function; recent developments in carbohydrate, lipid, and nitrogen metabolism, emphasizing control mechanisms; primary and secondary metabolism in relation to plant growth and development and environmental stress.
Prerequisite: BCH310H/BIO250Y

BOT430H
Ecological Plant Geography and Palynology 26L, 39P

The origin and development of the vegetation of North America; techniques of pollen and macrofossil analysis of Quaternary deposits. There are one 2-day and three 1-day field trips.
Recommended preparation: ENV234Y

BOT434H
Applied Ecology (formerly JBF434H) 26L, 26T

Ecosystem response to management activity, anthropogenic disturbance and chronic stress. Three sections comprise the course: i) (pre) history up to industrialization, ii) consequences of industrial activity, iii) the post-industrial environment.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y
Recommended preparation: ENV234Y/FOR215H

BOT450Y
Advanced Virology TBA

Recombinant DNA and RNA in viruses. Biotechnology and plant transformation. Lectures on current developments, individual research projects using plant viruses, participation in seminars.
Prerequisite: BIO351Y and permission of instructor

BOT452Y
Plant-Microorganism Interactions 52L, 52T

Structural, genetical, physiological, molecular and biochemical aspects of the interactions between higher plants and parasitic or mutualistic bacteria and fungi; conceptual and mechanistic aspects of specificity and recognition. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: BIO250Y
Recommended preparation: BOT251Y/301H/351Y

BIO460H
Molecular Evolution (See "Biology")

BOT460Y/461H
Project in Botany TBA

A research project, requiring the prior consent of a member of the Department to supervise the project. The topic is to be agreed on by the student and supervisor before enrolment in the course; they must also arrange the time, place, and provision of any materials. Written and oral reports are required. Normally open only to fourth-year students with adequate background in Botany.
Exclusion: If BOT460Y is taken then BOT461H may not be taken for credit
Prerequisite: Permission of Department

MGB460H
Plant Molecular Genetics (See "Molecular Genetics and Molecular Biology")

BOT462Y/463H
Advanced Topics in Botany TBA

Selected research/lecture topics in plant sciences offered to advanced students.
Exclusion: If BOT462Y is taken then BOT463H may not be taken for credit
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor


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