Arts & Science Calendar 1998-99: Table of Contents: Programs and Courses
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GGR GEOGRAPHY


On this page: Introduction | Faculty Members | Programs | Courses
See also: Course Summer Timetable | Course Winter Timetable | Secondary School Information | More on Department

Introduction

Geography is the study of the environments created on the earth's surface by nature and people. The physical and biological elements of these environments, as well as their economic and social structure, historical development, spatial organization, interrelationships, management and planning form the subject matter of Geography. Geography, therefore, relates closely to other fields in natural science, social science and the humanities, and geographers take courses in these related fields along with their geography courses. Students specializing in other subjects often select one or more geography courses to deepen their understanding of the resource base, culture and economy of those parts of the world in which they are interested.

Employment opportunities for geographers exist in many branches of international organizations, government, industry, and education. Geographers work at all levels of government service, especially in agencies responsible for environmental management; land and resource analysis; development of historic districts and sites; urban transportation planning; regional economic planning; trade promotion; geographic systems design and data analysis; transport network design and the processing of archival, survey, and cartographic information. In business, geographers work in marketing, locational analysis, resource development, and in consulting firms engaged in project evaluation and land use planning.

Students studying Geography may take either a B.A. or B.Sc., depending upon the aspects they wish to emphasize. The Department offers several Specialist, Major and Minor Programs in Geography, cooperates in offering a combined program with Economics, shares with Botany and Zoology a program in Biogeography, and contributes courses to various college programs including Environmental Studies and Urban Studies, Canadian Studies, Anthropology, Environmental Geosciences, Archaeology, Caribbean Studies, European Studies and Division of the Environment.

The Professional Experience Year program ("PEY": see also also Study Elsewhere Program Options ) is available to full-time Geography Majors or Specialists at the end of their second or third year of a four-year program, or their second year of a three-year program. A minimum CGPA of 2.0 and a minimum 70% average in Geography courses is required. The program provides students with the opportunity to gain 12-16 months of employment experience.

Course outlines are available throughout the year in the departmental office, Sidney Smith Hall, Room 5047. Counselling and advice may be obtained from the Undergraduate Coordinator, the Student Counsellor and from the Geography Undergraduates' Society (T.U.G.S.), Sidney Smith Hall, Room 613.

Undergraduate Coordinator: Professor A.M. Davis, Sidney Smith Hall, Room 5044 (978-5992)

Student Counsellor: Ms. J. Kallis, Sidney Smith Hall, Room 5050 (978-6455)

General Enquiries: 978-3375

Faculty Members

University Professors Emeritus
F.K. Hare, CC, OO, B Sc, Ph D, LL D, D Sc, DS Litt, D Litt, FKC, FRSC (T)

Professors Emeriti
L. Curry, MA, Ph D S.T. Roweis, M Sc (Pl), Ph D (I)
A.J. Dakin, Ph D, ARIBA, FRTPI J.W. Simmons, MA, Ph D
W.G. Dean, MA, Ph D, LL D J. Spelt, MA, Ph D
N.C. Field, MA, Ph D J.J. van der Eyk, MA, Ph D
G. Gracie, BA Sc, Ph D (E)
A.V. Jopling, MA, Ph D A. Waterhouse, M Sc (PL), Ph D
P.D. Kerr, MA, Ph D J.B.R. Whitney, MA, Ph D
J.T. Lemon, MS, Ph D (U)

Professor and Acting Chair of the Department
J.H. Galloway, MA, Ph D (V)

Professors
C.G. Amrhein, B Sc, Ph D B. Greenwood, B Sc, Ph D (S)
L.E. Band, MA, Ph D C.J. Houston, MA, Ph D (E)
L.S. Bourne, MA, Ph D, FRSC R. Jaakson, M Sc (PL), Ph D (SM)
J.N.H. Britton, MA, Ph D J.R. Miron, M Sc, Ph D (S)
R.B. Bryan, BA, Ph D (S) D.S. Munro, M Sc, Ph D (E)
J.H. Galloway, MA, Ph D (V) E.C. Relph, M Phil, Ph D (S)
M.S. Gertler, BA, MCP, Ph D (U) R.R. White, M Sc, Ph D (E)

Associate Professors
M.F. Bunce, BA, Ph D (S) L.D.D. Harvey, M Sc, Ph D
F. Csillag, Dr. Univ. (E) V.W. Maclaren, MPL, MS, Ph D
A.M. Davis, M Sc, Ph D T.F. McIlwraith, MA, Ph D (E)
J.R. Desloges, M Sc, Ph D D.A. McQuillan, MA, Ph D
M.L. Diamond, M Sc, M Sc Eng, Ph D A.G. Price, M Sc, Ph D (S)
K. England, MA, Ph D V.B. Robinson, MS, Ph D (E)
G.H.K. Gad, D Phil, Ph D (E) S. Ruddick, MA, Ph D
A.P. Grima, MA, Ph D J.K. Young, B Sc, M Sc (E)

Assistant Professors
K.A. Bolton, B Sc (Agr), Ph D (S) J.J. Gerits, M Sc, Ph D
R.A. Clapp, MA, Ph D W. Gough, M Sc, Ph D (S)
A.G. Daniere, BA, MPP, Ph D R.D. Lewis, MA, Ph D
R.J. DiFrancesco, MA, Ph D

Lecturer
G.R. Hopper, MA, PhD (E)

GEOGRAPHY PROGRAMS

Enrolment in Minor, Major and Specialist programs sponsored by the Department of Geography requires the completion of four courses, including one of GGR 100Y, 107Y, 124Y or JGF 150Y. No minimum GPA required. Double majors in Geography must complete at least 13 different GGR/JFG/JGF/JGI credits.

BIOGEOGRAPHY — See BOTANY

ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (B.A.)

Consult Department of Geography.

Specialist program (Hon.B.A.): S09351 (10 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: One course from Group A (GGR 107Y recommended)
Higher Years:
1. GGR 233Y, 270Y, 272H/CSC 104H/108H, GGR 391H, 393H
2. GGR 491Y/two of GGR 409H, 415H, 418H, 435H, 450H, 498H, 499H
3. One additional half course from Group B
4. Four courses from: GGR 220Y, 239H, 256H, 305H, 307H, 310H, 314H, 327H, 331H, 332H, 333H, 334H, 340H, 342H, 343H, 344H, 347H, 348H, 390H, 409H, 415H, 418H, 435H, 450H; INI 440Y; JFG 328H; JGF 470H, 475H; up to 1.5 courses from Group C; a second course from Group A; up to one more course credit from Group B

Major program Major program: M09351 (7 full courses or their equivalent)
First Year: One course from Group A (GGR 107Y recommended)
Higher Years:
1. GGR 233Y
2. One course from Group B
3. Four courses from last option list in Specialist program above

GEOGRAPHY (B.A.)

Specialist program (Hon.B.A.): S16661 (10 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: One course from Group A
Higher Years:
1. GGR 270Y, 272H/CSC 104H/108H, GGR 391H/392H
2. GGR 491Y/two of GGR 409H, 413H, 415H, 418H, 421H, 431H, 446H, 450H, 452H, 455H, 459H, 498H, 499H
3. One additional half course from Group B
4. Additional GGR courses to a total of ten, with no more than one additional course from Group A

Major program Major program: M16661 (7 full courses or their equivalent)

NOTE: The general Geography major program is excluded from the arrangement whereby students in a four-year degree may take two major programs sponsored by the Department of Geography.
First Year: One course from Group A
Higher Years:
1. One course from Group B
2. Additional GGR courses to a total of seven, with no more than one additional course from Group A and including at least three 300-400 level courses

Minor program Minor program: R16661 (4 full courses or their equivalent)
1. One course only from Group A
2. Three other higher level GGR courses, including at least one 300/400-series course

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS — See DIVISION of the ENVIRONMENT

GEOGRAPHY AND ECONOMICS — See ECONOMICS

HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY (B.A.)

Consult Department of Geography.

Specialist program (Hon.B.A.): S25521 (10 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: One course from Group A (GGR 107Y recommended)
Higher Years:
1. GGR 240Y, 270Y, 272H/CSC 104H/108H, GGR 392H
2. GGR 491Y/two of GGR 421H, 446H, 499H
3. One additional half course from Group B
4. 4.5 courses from: GGR 239H, 246H, 249H, 254H, 336H, 340H, 342H, 343H, 344H, 347H, 348H, 361H, 364H, 366H, 421H, 446H; a second course from Group A; up to one more course credit from Group B

Major program Major program: M25521 (7 full courses or their equivalent)
First Year: One course from Group A (GGR 107Y recommended)
Higher Years:
1. GGR 240Y
2. One full course or equivalent from Group B
3. Four courses from last option list in Specialist Program above

PHYSICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY (B.Sc.)

Consult Department of Geography.

Specialist program (Hon.B.Sc.): S20301 (12.5 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year:
1. One course from Group A (GGR 100Y/JGF 150Y strongly recommended)
2. MAT 135Y/137Y, PHY 110Y/138Y/140Y
3. One course from: BIO 100Y/150Y; CHM 137Y/151Y
Higher Years:
4. Three of: GGR 201H, 203H, 205H, 206H
5. GGR 270Y, 272H/CSC 104H/108H, GGR 390H, 391H
6. GGR 491Y/two of GGR 409H, 413H, 498H
7. One additional half-course from Group B
8. Three courses from: GGR 201H, 203H, 205H, 206H, 302H, 305H, 307H, 310H, 312H, 314H, 401H, 402H, 409H, 413H, 490H; GLG 355H; JGG 404H; up to one more course credit from Group B

Major program Major program: M20301 (7.5 full courses or their equivalent)
First Year:
1. One course from Group A (GGR 100Y/JGF 150Y strongly recommended)
2. One course from: BIO 100Y/150Y; CHM 137Y/151Y; MAT 135Y/137Y; PHY 110Y/138Y/140Y
Higher Years:
3. Three of: GGR 201H, 203H, 205H, 206H
4. GGR 390H
5. One additional course from Group B
6. 2.5 courses from last option list in Specialist program above

URBAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY (B.A.)

Consult Department of Geography.

Specialist program (Hon.B.A.): S24211 (10 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: One course from Group A (GGR 124Y recommended)
Higher Years:
1. GGR 220Y, 270Y, 272H/CSC 104H/108H, GGR 391H
2. GGR 491Y/two of 431H, 450H, 452H, 455H, 459H, 499H, JFG 470H
3. One additional half-course from Group B
4. 4.5 courses from: GGR 233Y, 239H, 249H, 252H, 256H, 323H, 324H, 326H, 333H, 336H, 339H, 340H, 342H, 343H, 344H, 347H, 348H, 357H, 361H, 366H, 431H, 436H, 450H, 452H, 455H, 459H; JFG 470H, 475H; JGI 346H; a second course from Group A; up to one more course credit from Group B

Major program Major program: M24211 (7 full courses or their equivalent)
First Year: One course from Group A (GGR 124Y recommended)
Higher Years:
1. GGR 220Y
2. One course from Group B
3. Four courses from the last option list in Specialist Program above

Group A: GGR 100Y, 101Y, 107Y, 110Y, 124Y; JGF 150Y

Group B: GGR 270Y, 272H, 273H, 327H, 371H, 373H, 390H, 391H, 392H, 393H, 462H, 464H, 473H, 480H, 490H; JFG 470H, 475H

Group C: ENV 236Y; GGR 201H, 203H, 205H, 206H, 302H, 305H, 307H, 310H, 314H, 401H, 402H, 409H, 413H, 490H; JGG 404H

Note: A different Statistics course (e.g. STA 220H+221H) can be substituted for GGR 270Y, but another GGR course must be taken as a replacement. Similarly, CSC 104H/108H may be substituted for Group B courses, but replacement GGR must be taken.

GEOGRAPHY COURSES

(see Section 4 for Key to Course Descriptions)

For Distribution Requirement purposes, GGR courses are classified in various categories; see entry at end of each course.

SSC199Y
First Year Seminar 52T

Undergraduate seminar that focuses on specific ideas, questions, phenomena or controversies, taught by a regular Faculty member deeply engaged in the discipline. Open only to newly admitted first year students. It may serve as a breadth requirement course; see First Year Seminars: 199Y.

GGR100Y
Introduction to Physical Geography 52L, 10T

A basic physical geography moulded around a simple systems approach. The atmospheric, biospheric and lithospheric systems and their interactions.
Exclusion: GLG110H, JGF150Y

This is a Science course

GGR107Y
Environment, Food and People 52L, 8T

Relations between population growth, agricultural development, urbanization and the natural environment. From the origins of agriculture to the present. From a few million to six billion people. The cost to the environment. The prospect of sustainability.
Exclusion: GGR101Y, 110Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR124Y
Urbanization, Contemporary Cities and Urban Life 52L, 8T

Introduction to the urban process. Global urbanization and the origin of cities; urban systems; uneven growth and the functional specialization of cities; economic restructuring, migration, public policies. Dynamics of urban property markets, population and demography, job location, housing, mobility and neighbourhood change, social structure and inequalities. Planning, politics and policy issues in Canadian cities.

This is a Social Science course

JGF150Y
The Earth Sciences 52L, 24P

An introduction to planet Earth including its enveloping atmosphere and oceans and a synopsis of its 4-billion-year history, as revealed in the rock record. A knowledge of rocks, landforms, soils and geological history of southern Ontario are gained through laboratory exercises and field trips.
Exclusion: GGR100Y, GLG110H
Prerequisite: OAC Science or permission of instructor

This is a Science course GGR201H
Geomorphology 26L, 4P

An introduction to the principles of geomorphology; earth materials; major features of crustal morphology; landforming processes of water, wind, waves and ice; human impact on earth surface processes. One hour laboratory session approximately every other week; a local field trip.
Recommended preparation: GGR100Y/JGF150Y

This is a Science course

GGR203H
Introduction to Climatology 34L, 4T

Introduction to the large scale processes responsible for determining global and regional climate and atmospheric circulation patterns, as well as the small scale processes responsible for determining the microclimates of specific environments.
Recommended preparation: GGR100Y/JGF150Y, MAT135Y/137Y, PHY110Y/138Y/140Y

This is a Science course

GGR205H
Introduction to Soil Science 52L

Introduction to soil science emphasizing the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of soils and their application to environmental, agricultural and geomorphological studies.
Prerequisite: OAC/Grade 13 Chemistry

Recommended Preparation: CHM137Y, GGR100Y/JGF150Y

This is a Science course

GGR206H
Introduction to Hydrology 30L, 4T

An introduction to the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on the terrestrial branch; precipitation, evaporation, runoff, flood prediction; ground water and snowmelt hydrology.
Recommended preparation: GGR100Y/JGF150Y, MAT135Y

This is a Science course

GGR220Y
The Spatial Organization of Economic Activity 52L, 5T

This basic course in economic geography introduces the main concepts and models that apply to problems of rural land use, trade and spatial economic interaction, industrial location, and regional development.

This is a Social Science course

GGR233Y
Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 52L, 13T

This course addresses the twin imperatives of appropriate institutions for sustainable development and the need for scientific understanding as a basis for environmental action. Focus on Canadian environmental and natural resource issues.
Recommended preparation: GGR100Y/101Y/107Y/110Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR239H
Global Political Geography 26L

Introduction to geopolitical theories. Emphasis on the development of the nation state, theories of land claims and the territorial manifestations of nationalism with contemporary examples from Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East. In-depth analysis of how spatial distribution of and competition for scarce resources (such as oil and water) affect the foreign policy of countries.
Recommended preparation: Introductory geography/political science course

This is a Social Science course

GGR240Y
Historical Geography of the Americas 52L, 6T

An introduction to issues in the historical geography of the Americas emphasizing comparisons between North and South. The course begins with the pre-Columbian Americas and the impact of European imperial expansion. It explores the emergence of cultural realms and the development of regional economies and societies into the 20th century.

This is a Humanities course

GGR246H
Geography of Canada 26L

A topical and regional introduction to the geography of Canada. Primary emphasis is on the resource base, regional differences and disparities, urbanization, industrialization, social and economic policy and population change.

This is a Social Science course

GGR249H
Contemporary Latin America 26L

Conflict between the conservatism of long-established patterns of settlement and land use and the drive for economic development. Agricultural reform; colonization of the interior, emergence of industrial regions; growth of large cities. Case studies of the problems of regional development. Latin America in world trade. Trade relations with Canada. (Offered in alternate years)

This is a Social Science course

GGR252H
Marketing Geography 26L, 3T

The problem of retail location. The spatial structure of consumer demand and retail facilities. Shopping centres and retail chains. Techniques for site selection and trade area evaluation, location strategies, retail planning.
Recommended preparation: GGR124Y/220Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR254H
Geography USA 26L

Contemporary issues in American society: economy, politics, race, class in an historical context. Regional distinctions and disparities: Frostbelt, Snowbelt, Megalopolis, California. Inner-city problems. U.S. as world power.

This is a Social Science course

GGR256H
Recreation Geography 26L

Introduction to spatial organization and environmental impact of recreation. Prediction of demand, problems of over-use, ecological risks, conflicts of interests, planning perspectives, Canada's tourist trade.
Prerequisite: GGR101Y/107Y/124Y
Recommended preparation: GGR270Y or equivalent (see listing below)

This is a Social Science course

GGR270Y
Introductory Analytical Methods 78L, 26P

Theory and practical application of elementary quantitative techniques in geography emphasizing descriptive, inferential and spatial statistical analysis, probability, sampling, and spatial analysis.
Exclusion: ECO220Y, PSY201H, 202H, SOC300Y, STA(220H, 221H/JBS229H)/(250H,255H/257Y)
Pre- or Co-requisite: Two courses in Geography

This is a Social Science course

GGR272H
Geographic Information and Mapping I 26L, 10P

Introduction to database and GIS software. Acquisition and processing of locational, environmental, and socio-economic data. Spatial resolution and map scale. Raster and vector data structures. Map projections and geocoding.
Exclusion: GGR261H
Prerequisite: GGR100Y/101Y/107Y/110Y/124Y/JGF150Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR273H
Geographic Information and Mapping II 26L, 10P

Introduction to contouring and thematic mapping software. Interpolation and surface generation. Cartographic generalization. Use of symbols, patterns and colour.
Exclusion: GGR380H
Prerequisite: GGR100Y/101Y/107Y/110Y/124Y/JGF150Y, GGR272H/281H

This is a Social Science course

GGR299Y
Research Opportunity Program

Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. See Research Opportunity Program for details.

NOTE Many GGR 300- and 400- series courses are balloted. Students wishing to enrol in balloted courses must follow the procedures as outlined in the March ACCESS Timetable and the Geography Handbook (available from the Department beginning April). Balloting will apply only through the first ACCESS Registration Period. No ballots will be processed after the ballot deadline in May 1998. Registration after ACCESS will be according to regular enrolment procedures.

GGR302H
Quaternary Paleoclimatic Reconstruction 26L, 2P

Emphasis on the role of glacial landforms and sediments on continents, and marine sediments in oceans, for reconstructing ice age climates. Exercises involve interpretation of landforms from maps and aerial photos and laboratory analyses of materials collected on local field trips. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: GGR201H/203H

This is a Science course

GGR305H
Biogeography 26L

Introduction to the spatial and temporal patterns of plant and animal distribution. The first half focuses on contemporary environmental and biological controls. The second half examines past patterns and their causes.
Prerequisite: GGR100Y/BIO100Y/150Y/JGF150Y

This is a Science course

GGR307H
Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry 26L, 13P

An introduction to fundamental principles of soil and water chemistry with a limited number of environmental applications covered in labs/tutorials. Chemical equilibria in soil and water; redox equilibria in soil and water; surface chemistry; sorption and ion exchange; complexation; solute transport.
Prerequisite: GGR205H
Recommended preparation: CHM137Y

This is a Science course

GGR310H
Cultural Biogeography 26L

The changing relationship between people and the biosphere from the emergence of hominids to the present. Environmental constraints on human evolution, hunter-gatherer societies and their environmental impacts, evolution of agriculture and consequences of increasing population and technology, including deliberate and inadvertent introductions of plants and animals and forest fragmentation. Effectiveness of contemporary approaches to conservation. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: ANT200Y/BOT430H/GGR305H

This is a Science course

GGR312H
Physical Basis of Climate 30L, 4T

The large scale processes determining regional and global climate, including biogeochemical cycles, radiation, maintenance of general circulation, and sea ice and snow processes. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: GGR203H, MAT135Y/137Y

This is a Science course

GGR314H
Global Warming 26L

A comprehensive examination of the greenhouse warming problem, beginning with economic, carbon cycle, and climate model projections; impacts on and adaptive responses of agriculture, forests, fisheries, and water resources; abatement options; technical and institutional issues.

This is a Social Science course

GGR323H
Issues in Population Geography 26L

Explores issues in geographies of population at a variety of scales from global to local. Issues include demographic patterns and population change, fertility, families and cohorts, mortality, and migration and immigration policies. Will draw mainly on the Canadian and U.S. experience, but examples will also be drawn from other regions of the world.
Recommended preparation: GGR270Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR324H
Transportation Geography and Planning 26L

An introductory overview of major issues in interurban and intraurban transportation at both local and national scales. Topics include causes of spatial interaction, graph theory and network analysis, gravity and entropy-maximizing models, urban transportation and land use, congestion, public transit and transport policy.
Prerequisite: GGR124Y/220Y
Recommended preparation: GGR270Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR326H
Industrial Location: Theory, Applications, and Policy 26L

Examination of industrial location models, industrial behaviour, and the innovation process. Canadian trade and technological policy and the locational and policy implications of foreign-owned industry are discussed.
Recommended preparation: GGR220Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR327H
Social Research Methods 26L

Practical course on field methods designed to enable students to carry out their own research projects. Behavioural observation, interviewing, questionnaire design, attitude scaling, sampling theory, content analysis of written and graphic material, data coding and computer applications in surveys.
Prerequisite: GGR270Yor equivalent (see "GGR270Y" listing above)

This is a Social Science course

JFG328H
Conservation and Management of Canada's Forests 26L

The extent, distribution of Canada's forest ecosystems. Public opinion, social and economic objectives in sustainable forest development. The role of Canada's forests in the global environment, including environmental, social and economic indicators of sustainable forestry.
Recommended preparation: GGR101Y/107Y/233Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR331H
Resource and Environmental Theory 26L

Environmental effects of resource industries and commodity trade, with special attention to the forest industry. Topics include: staple theory, the business cycle and the resource cycle; market solutions to environmental problems; resource scarcity; recycling and technological substitutions; global resource trade, footloose industry and pollution havens.
Prerequisite: GGR101Y/107Y/233Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR332H
Urban Waste Management 26L

This course examines 1) factors affecting the spatial distribution of wastes; and 2) models and policy implications inherent in all aspects of waste management, from waste generation through recycling and waste disposal. Topics such as waste composition and transportation are covered from an international perspective, while others focus on the North American context only.
Prerequisite: GGR233Y or a 200-level environmental course

This is a Social Science course

GGR333H
Canadian Energy: Geography and Policy Issues 26L

Regional supply/demand patterns; conventional and alternative energy sources; production and delivery systems; end uses and efficiencies; energy forecasting; national and regional energy policies; policy options ("soft" vs. "hard" paths); energy analysis.
Prerequisite: GGR220Y/233Y/(246H, 247H)

This is a Social Science course

GGR334H
Water Resource Management 26L

Canadian water policies; estimation of supply and demand; inter-basin water transfers; alternative strategies for industrial and community water supply and waste water disposal; Great Lakes. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: GGR233Y
Recommended preparation: GGR100Y/101Y/107Y/110Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR336H
Urban Historical Geography of North America 26L

Processes of urbanization; development of urban systems; changing internal patterns: central area, residential districts, housing, transportation, effects of reform, evolution of planning. Emphasis on the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century.
Recommended preparation: GGR124Y/SOC205Y

This is a Humanities course

GGR337H
Remote Sensing of Environment (formerly GGR319H) 26L, 26P

Electro-magnetic radiation exchange and measurement of optical, thermal infrared, radar from aircraft or satellites. Digital image analysis. Applications in land use surveys, forestry, geomorphology and hydrology. Usually offered at Erindale College.
Prerequisite: JGF150Y/272H

This is a Science course

GGR339H
Urban Geography, Planning and Political Processes 26L

The interdependence of political processes and institutions, public policy and urban geography. The political economy of federalism, urban growth, planning and public services as they shape the urban landscape. Canadian and U.S. comparisons.
Recommended preparation: ECO100Y/EUR200Y/GGR124Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR340H
Regionalism in Canada 26L

Deals with the emergence of present day conflicting regionalisms in Canada through a study of the evolution of the provinces and of their urban systems from the 1850's to the 1990's. The geographic impact of successive central government policies: British mercantilism, Confederation's National Party, Equalization Policies of the welfare state, the National Energy Policy and NAFTA and the NEP.

This is a Social Science course

GGR342H
The Changing Geography of Southeast Asia 26L

Changes in the social, political and economic geography of Southeast Asian countries. Examples drawn from Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines as these emerging newly industrialized countries enter the 21st century. Emphasis on political-economy, urbanization and environment since 1950.
Recommended preparation: Two courses in Geography

This is a Social Science course

GGR343H
The Changing Geography of China 26L

The evolving physical, social, political and economic landscape of China. Emphasis on development strategies, industry, agriculture, urbanization and the environment since 1949.
Recommended preparation: Two courses in Geography

This is a Social Science course

GGR344H
Changing Geography of Russia and Ukraine 26L

Overview of the physical environment and historical geography; changes in population distribution during the Soviet period; current demographic and ethnic problems; the rural economy; urbanization, industrial location, and regional development issues.
Recommended preparation: Two courses in Geography

This is a Social Science course

JGI346H
The Urban Planning Process in Canada (formerly GGR346H) 26L

Urban planning mechanisms, the legislation and its goals. Planning issues from negotiation to legislation to appeal. Urban and regional problems facing planners in Ontario compared with those emerging in other provinces; Ontario's legislative solutions contrasted with those developed elsewhere. (Given by the Department of Geography and Innis College)
Recommended preparation: GGR124Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR347H
The Changing Geography of Japan 26L

Changes in social and economic geography with Japan's emergence as a modern state. Emphasis on developments in industry, agriculture, urbanization and the environment since 1945.
Recommended preparation: Two courses in Geography

This is a Social Science course

GGR348H
Geography of the Middle East 26L

Physical and human geography of the Middle East and North Africa. Resources, economic and political geographies of the region. Additional topics: regional distinctions and disparities, regional development, trade patterns, geography of petroleum resources, territorial and resource conflicts.
Recommended preparation: Two courses in Geography

This is a Social Science course

GGR357H
Geography of Housing and Housing Policy 26L

An introduction to housing in context: as a commodity, a political process and social necessity. The analysis of housing markets in an urban and spatial context, emphasizing the allocation mechanism, residential location and tenure choice, the role of the state, social housing and the relationships of housing changes to mobility, neighbourhood transition, and social equity. Case studies of specific policy issues and alternative housing strategies.
Recommended preparation: GGR124Y and one Statistics course

This is a Social Science course

GGR361H
Understanding the Urban Landscape 26L

Three related themes are discussed: the underlying social, cultural and economic forces that have given cities their form and image; various aesthetic and political philosophies that have been put into practice in constructing the urban landscape; and recent European and North American attempts to control the landscape of the contemporary metropolis by the application of urban policy and planning.
Prerequisite: EUR200Y/GGR124Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR364H
Historical Geography of Ethnic Groups in Canada 26S

The creation and survival of ethnic communities in Canada with particular emphasis on rural settlements. Aspects of ethnic territoriality, the stability of ethnic communities, and the adaptation of immigrants to the Canadian environment. Models of ethnic assimilation within the different regions of Canada.
Prerequisite: GGR240Y/HIS262Y/263Y

This is a Humanities course

GGR366H
Historical Toronto 26L

Toronto's development compared to other large North American cities. Culture, social life, economy, politics, and planning process.
Recommended preparation: GGR336H

This is a Humanities course

GGR371H
Multivariate Statistical Methods in Geography 26L

Applied multivariate analysis: multiple regression, log-linear models, spatial statistics, and selected additional topics including: time series, factor and cluster analysis.
Prerequisite: GGR270Y
Recommended preparation: GGR272H

This is a Science course

GGR373H
Geographic Information Processing 26P

An introduction to the processing of spatially referenced information by means of computer workstation hardware and geographic information system software.
Prerequisite: GGR270Y and two other GGR courses

This is a Science course

GGR390H
Field Methods 26L

Introduction to field methods in vegetation mapping/analysis, soils, hydrology and geomorphology. The course includes exercises and a project during a one-week field camp early in September, a little preparation during the preceding summer, and complementary practical work and/or seminars during the Fall Term. Each student is required to pay the costs of their transportation and accommodation. Students must register with the Department in April 1998.
Prerequisite: GGR100Y/JGF150Y

This is a Science course

GGR391H
Research Design 26S

A seminar course in which each student prepares a research proposal which considers relevant theory, published research, existing sources of data, and methods of enquiry and analysis. A proposal prepared in this course may be used to plan research for GGR 491Y.
Prerequisite: Three 200/300-series GGR courses including GGR270Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR392H
Research Methods in Historical Geography 26L

The design and execution of a small research project using the methods of historical geography. Components include: project design, literature review, data-gathering from primary sources such as Canadian census manuscripts, data analysis and the presentation of a short research paper.
Prerequisite: GGR101Y/107Y/110Y/240Y/HIS262Y/263Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR393H
Environmental Impact Assessment 26L, 6P

Predicting the impact of development on communities, wildlife and the natural environment. The laws, institutions, processes and methods of environmental assessment. Approaches to ecosystem management, monitoring and mitigation are introduced through sample Environmental Impact Statements.
Prerequisite: GGR101Y/107Y/233Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR400H
Special Topics in Geography 13S

Content in any given year depends on instructor. Consult Departmental Office in April.
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor must be obtained

GGR401H
Fluvial Geomorphology 39L

Elements of drainage basin morphology and hydrology, classification of rivers, stream patterns, and hydraulic geometry. Elements of open channel flow and sediment transport. River channel adjustments to hydrologic change and human impacts on river development. Paleohydrology and paleohydraulics. Exercises include experimentation in a laboratory flume.
Prerequisite: GGR201H, 270Y

This is a Science course

GGR402H
Climate Modelling 26L

Introduction to climate and carbon cycle modelling at the global scale with emphasis on 0 and 1 dimensional models and box models. Applications to understanding the present climate, explaining past climates, and predicting man-induced climatic changes. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: GGR312H, MAT135Y/137Y

This is a Science course

JGG404H
Biogeochemistry II 26L, 12P

Ecosystem analysis at the watershed level is used to evaluate and predict the impact of natural and human disturbances on the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. (Offered by the Departments of Geology and Geography)
Prerequisite: JGG350H/GLG350H

This is a Science course

GGR409H
Contaminants in the Environment 26L, 13T

The environmental behaviour and ecotoxicology of inorganic and organic chemical contaminants is discussed in order to understand the scientific basis of pollution concerns. Theory illustrated with qualitative and quantitative examples and case studies. Apply simple mathematical models. Application of scientific theory and observations to policy development and the interface between science and policy is discussed throughout.
Prerequisite: CHM137Y/151Y/GGR205H/GLG202H

This is a Science course

GGR413H
Watershed Hydroecology 26L

Modern developments in geomorphology, including form and process models, interactions of hydrology, ecology and geomorphology; the course emphasizes use of computer simulation models of drainage basin processes.
Prerequisite: GGR201H, 206H, 270Y

This is a Science course

GGR415H
Resource and Environmental Planning (formerly GGR417H) 26L

The legal and institutional aspects of resource and environmental planning in Canada. Overview of the evolution of resource and environmental management and the examination of selected planning techniques; community involvement in planning; the ecosystem approach to planning; emphasis on environmental planning in the urban context.
Prerequisite: GGR233Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR418H
Resource and Industry 26S

Resource industries and their ecological impacts, with special attention to agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Topics include: resource depletion, substitution and technological change; staple theory and resource-based development; commodity markets, international trade, and pollution havens.
Prerequisite: GGR233Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR421H
History of Geographical Thought 26L

Review of persistent questions before and after Darwin. The emergence of an academic discipline.
Recommended preparation: Two courses in Geography

This is a Humanities course

GGR431H
Regional Dynamics 26L

Theory and analysis of regional economic change with emphasis on North America and Western Europe. Export-base, neoclassical, cumulative causation, and political-economic explanations of regional growth and decline, changing terms of competition, and consequences for regional development. Geography of investment decisions, technological change, labour-markets and labour relations. Objectives and approaches for local and regional development policy.
Prerequisite: GGR220Y, 270Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR435H
Technology, Toronto, and Global Warming 26L

Toronto as a case study of methods to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, their costs and benefits, and of the practical problems involved. Seminar format with public presentations by students. (Offered in alternate years)

Co- or prerequisite: GGR314H

This is a Social Science course

GGR436H
Geography of Tourism 26L

Travel patterns, economic, political, social and environmental impacts of tourism, tourism demand, supply capability assessment and environmental quality.
Prerequisite: GGR256H
Recommended preparation: GGR220Y/252H

This is a Social Science course

GGR446H
Approaches to Historical Geography 26L

Origins and development. Contributions of major practitioners in Canada, USA, UK and France. Landscape appreciation, political and applied uses of historical geography, other current trends.
Recommended preparation: A course in Historical Geography

This is a Humanities course

GGR450H
Medical Geography 26L

The geography of health and disease. Environmental and behavioural factors in the causes and distributions of diseases. Mapping and modelling disease diffusion. Spatial distribution of health care resources and their utilization.
Prerequisite: GGR100Y/101Y/107Y/110Y/124Y/JGF150Y, GGR270Y
Recommended preparation: OAC Biology/BIO100Y/150Y

This is a Social Science course

GGR452H
Space, Power, Geography: Understanding Spatiality 26S

The changing nature of space and our thinking about it, centering on works of contemporary geographers and spatial theorists such as Lefebvre, Soja, Gregory, Harvey, Massey and challenges to its thinking. Explores changing concepts of spatiality that inform geographic thought and help us understand the ways political, economic and social power is constituted and contested.
Prerequisite: GGR124Y
Recommended preparation: Should not be attempted without 2 years full-time (or equivalent part-time study)

This is a Social Science course

GGR455H
Women and the City 26S

Research seminar exploring the reciprocal relations between gender relations and spatial structures. Feminist geography literature from North America and Britain is employed to illustrate the ways in which `gender' plays an important role in the layout of cities and in the activities of the people that reside in those cities.
Exclusion: GGRC06H (Scarborough College)
Prerequisite: GGR124Y
Recommended preparation: The course should not be attempted until you have completed two years of full-time study or the equivalent number of credits part-time.

This is a Social Science course

GGR459H
Urban Form, Structure and Growth 26L

Alternative perspectives on urban form and growth: diverse logics and tensions underlying metropolitan development; production and consumption spheres; changes in the demographic and social fabric of cities; economic restructuring and shifts in labour markets; land development and suburbanization; inner city revitalization and decline; public goods and services; policy issues and equity questions; quality of life and future urban forms.
Prerequisite: GGR124Y, 270Y(or equivalents)

This is a Social Science course

GGR462H
Geographic Information Systems 26L

The nature, design and organizational context of information systems used for spatially referenced socio-economic, environmental, and planning data bases. Input, analysis, and output of vector-based geographic information. Examples of geographic information systems.
Prerequisite: GGR272H/281H, 373H, and two other GGR courses

This is a Science course

GGR464H
GIS Project Management Applications 26L

Examines the use of GIS and remote sensing technologies in resource management, environmental planning and municipal land use planning. Strategies for the application of specialized software and hardware. Formulation of project objectives. Review of applied case studies and location theory
Prerequisite: GGR272H

This is a Social Science course

JFG470H
Forest Management 26L

Application of operational research and information technology to develop decision support systems for land management planning. Basic principles of mathematical programming, simulation and decision analysis techniques, and their application to planning for forest conservation and sustainable development, policy analysis and other land management planning problems.
Exclusion: GGR470H
Prerequisite: One course each in Linear Algebra/Calculus and Computer Science
Recommended preparation: CSC108H/148H, MAT133Y/135Y/137Y

This is a Science course

GGR473H
Cartographic Design by Computer 13L, 26P

The design and production of maps using cartographic and publishing software packages. Map perception and map use, principles and elements of cartographic design, production and reproduction of maps and atlases. Practical exercises culminate in a major project in atlas design.
Prerequisite: (GGR281H, 380H)/(GGR272H, 273H)

This is a Social Science course

JFG475H
Emergency Response Systems Planning 26L, 26T

Use of operational research and information technology to develop mathematical models and decision support systems used to design and evaluate the performance of emergency response systems. Forest fire management systems used to illustrate basic principles of emergency response system planning that can be applied to urban fire and ambulance services.
Prerequisite: One course each in Linear Algebra/Calculus and Computer Science
Recommended preparation: CSC108H/148H, MAT133Y/135Y/137Y

This is a Science course

GGR480Y
Advanced Field Research - Human Geography 26L

Context in any given year depends on instructor and location. Offered in summer session. Consult departmental office in April.
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor

This is a Social Science course

GGR490H
Advanced Field Research - Physical Geography 26L

A two week course emphasizing the use of advanced field methods for analyzing the pattern of variations in vegetation, soils, surface hydrology and geomorphology. Course is offered in August at one of several field stations located in Alberta, British Columbia and Newfoundland. Students are responsible for the cost of board, lodging and transport to and from the field. Students must register with the instructors in March. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: Two Physical/Environmental courses or permission of instructors
Recommended preparation: GGR390H

This is a Science course

GGR491Y
Research Project 20S

Only open to students who have completed 15 courses and who are enroled in a Specialist or Major Program sponsored by the Department of Geography. A ballot form (available in the Geography Department Office) must be filled out in April of the preceding year. Students should arrange for a supervisor through the Course Coordinator. Research projects must be approved by the supervisor and must be appropriate to the Specialist or Major Program in which the student is enroled.
Prerequisite: GGR391H/392H, 15 course credits

GGR498H
Independent Research I

An independent research extension to one of the courses already completed in Physical Geography. Enrolment requires written permission from a staff supervisor. Only open to students who have completed 15 course credits and who are enrolled in a Specialist or Major Program sponsored by the Department of Geography.
Exclusion: GGR491Y

This is a Science course

GGR499H
Independent Research II

An independent research extension to one of the courses already completed in a social science or humanities branch of Geography. Enrolment requires written permission from a staff supervisor. Only open to students who have completed 15 course credits and who are enrolled in a Specialist or Major Program sponsored by the Department of Geography.
Exclusion: GGR491Y

This is a Social Science or Humanities course


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Revised: April 6, 1998

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