Arts & Science Calendar 1998-99: Table of Contents: Programs and Courses
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Zoology, an exciting and rapidly expanding field, is the study of all animal (including human) life. Zoologists have traditionally made important contributions to society's knowledge of the natural world. Important breakthroughs include our understanding of heredity and how genes and DNA operate, and the concept of evolution with its implications for how we and other species have originated and why animals look and behave as they do. These discoveries are among the most important intellectual legacies of human civilization. Zoology in the future will continue to contribute new insights into the workings of nature, and this dynamic scientific field is thus an opportune area for fresh minds to seek training and careers.

Zoological research helps us to understand human problems associated with population growth, famine, disease, radiation hazards, and pollution. Medical and behavioural studies often depend on discoveries made with other animals. Zoology contributes to applied fields such as veterinary medicine, pest control, archaeology, and management of fish, wildlife, and natural areas.

Zoology is a diverse field of study. It may be divided into many special areas, some based on groups such as protozoa, insects, fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals, and others based on levels of organization or methods of study, such as molecular biology, cell biology, anatomy, physiology, genetics, behaviour, ecology, population biology and evolution. Because of this diversity, there is no shortage of interesting and challenging topics of study.

Careers in Zoology are diverse and numerous. They include teaching at all levels of education — schools, colleges and universities — throughout the world. Many Zoologists are also employed by government departments, agricultural institutes, medical laboratories, resource industries, environmental consulting companies, pharmaceutical laboratories and publishing companies. Although many of the careers require only specialization in Zoology at the undergraduate level, others require advanced degrees (M Sc or Ph D) in this area.

It is important that students wishing to pursue Programs in Zoology or jointly sponsored programs seek counselling. Some students may wish to take programs that include Zoology courses, or take courses in other departments. For example, a student with broad interests in Ecology may wish to take courses in Botany, Environmental Studies (INI), Geography or Forestry. To insure that you receive proper advice and enrol in the most suitable courses, the Undergraduate Office in Zoology should be consulted. Prerequisites and co-requisites may be waived by the instructor, and in some courses enrolment may be limited.

Associate Chair (Undergraduate Affairs): Professor J.D. Rising

Student Counselling and Enquiries: Ramsay Wright Zoological Laboratories, Room 019 (978-2084/8879)

Faculty Members

Professors Emeriti
† J.F.S. Bendell, BA, Ph D T.S. Parsons, AM, Ph D (SM)

L. Butler, MSA, Ph D R.C. Plowright, MA, Ph D
D.A. Chant, MA, Ph D, LL D, FRSC T.E. Reed, BA, Ph D
C.S. Churcher, M Sc, Ph D (T) H.A. Regier, MS, Ph D
G.M. Clark, M Sc, Ph D B.I. Roots, B Sc, Ph D, D Sc, FRSC (E)
† E.J. Crossman, MA, Ph D † W.B. Scott, BA, Ph D

J.B. Falls, BA, Ph D I. Tallan, B Sc, Ph D
W.G. Friend, B Sc, Ph D (W) G.M. Telford, B Sc, Ph D
H.H. Harvey, M Sc, Ph D F.A. Urquhart, MA, Ph D (S)
R.J. Mackay, M Sc, Ph D A.H. Weatherley, M Sc, Ph D (S)
Y. Masui, M Sc, Ph D † G.B. Wiggins, MA, Ph D
J.E. Paloheimo, MA, Ph D A.M. Zimmerman, MS, Ph D

J.M. Speirs, M Sc, Ph D

Professor and Acting Chair of the Department
S.S. Desser, M Sc, Ph D

and Associate Chairs
D.W. Dunham, BS, Ph D A.B. Lange, BS, Ph D (E)
I.R. Brown, B Sc, Ph D (S) J.D. Rising, BA, Ph D

† T.M. Alloway, MA, Ph D (E) †C.M. McGowan, B Sc, Ph D

† H.L. Atwood, MA, Ph D, D Sc, FRSC G.K. Morris, MS, Ph D (E)

† A.J. Baker, M Sc, Ph D N. Mrosovsky, BA, Ph D

R.L. Baker, M Sc, Ph D (E) D.H. O'Day, M Sc, Ph D (E)
† J.C. Barlow, MA, Ph D I. Orchard, B Sc, Ph D

F.M. Barrett, M Sc, Ph D B.H. Pomeranz, MD, CM, Ph D
R. Boonstra, B Sc, Ph D (S) R.R. Reisz, M Sc, Ph D (E)
D.R. Brooks, MS, Ph D † S.J. Shettleworth, MA, Ph D
D.G. Butler, M Sc, Ph D, D Sc, FRSA J.J.B. Smith, MA, Ph D
R.P. Elinson, B Sc, Ph D W.G. Sprules, MA, Ph D (E)
J.H. Fullard, M Sc, Ph D (E) † H-D. Sues, M Sc, AM, Ph D (T)
C.K. Govind, M Sc, Ph D (S) S.S. Tobe, M Sc, Ph D, FRSC
M.R. Gross, B Sc, Ph D S.L. Varmuza, MS, Ph D
D.T. Gwynne, B Sc, Ph D (E) D.D. Williams, M Sc, Ph D (S)
† P.E. Hallett, BA, B Sc, BM, B Ch, MA † M.P. Winsor, M Phil, Ph D (V)

R.I.C. Hansell, B Sc, Ph D (N) † R. Winterbottom, B Sc, Ph D
E.W. Larsen, M Sc, Ph D J.H. Youson, M Sc, Ph D (S)
R.A. Liversage, AM, Ph D A.P. Zimmerman, BA, Ph D

Associate Professors
† D.R. Calder, AM, Ph D D.K. Gibo, MA, Ph D (E)

† D.H. Collins, B Sc, Ph D † R. Murphy, MA, Ph D

N.C. Collins, BA, Ph D (E) M.R. Ralph, B Sc, Ph D
† C. Darling, M Sc, Ph D M.J. Ringuette, B Sc, Ph D

† M.D. Engstrom, MS, Ph D P.A. Romans, M Sc, Ph D

M.F. Filosa, M Sc, Ph D (S) R. Stephenson, B Sc, Ph D

Assistant Professors
† G.L. Boulianne, B Sc, Ph D D. Houle, BA, Ph D

† T.J. Brown, BS, Ph D D.A. Jackson, M Sc, Ph D

† L.T. Buck, B Sc, Ph D D.A. McLennan, M Sc, Ph D
† D.C. Currie, B Sc, Ph D L. Rowe, M Sc, Ph D

H. Cyr, M Sc, Ph D U. Tepass, M Sc, Ph D
D. Godt, Dipl in Bio, Ph D J.T. Westwood, M Sc, Ph D (E)

Senior Tutors
A. Cordon, B Sc C.A. Goldman, M Sc
T. Bubela, B Sc, Ph D (E)

† Cross-appointed


Laboratory investigations are part of life science programs at the University of Toronto. Programs in life sciences at the University of Toronto include courses that involve observation, handling, or experimentation on animals or on samples derived from animals. The use of animals in teaching and research is regulated by ethical and procedural guidelines and protocols. These are approved on an ongoing basis by the University Animal Care Committee, and follow provincial and federal government rules. We recognize, however, that some students may have strong reservations about personal exposure to any use of animal material in teaching. Students who want to avoid registration in programs or courses that include such labs are, therefore, encouraged to check in advance with the departments involved.



Enrolment in the Specialist, Major and Minor programs listed below requires completion of four courses; no minimum GPA is required.

NOTE: Students in this Program must notify the Department annually of their course selections, beginning in the Second Year.

Specialist program (Hon.B.Sc.): S06931 (13 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
1. BIO 150Y, 250Y, 260H, ZOO 252Y
2. CHM 137Y/151Y
3. JMB 170Y/MAT 135Y/137Y/157Y (MAT 135Y may be required for certain courses)
4. CHM 240Y/248Y/GGR 270Y/PSY (201H, 202H)/STA 220H, (221H/JBS 229H)/STA (250H, 255H)/(250H, 257H)
5. CHM 222Y/240Y/248Y/GGR 270Y/JGF 150Y/MAT 235Y/237Y/PHY 110Y/138Y/PSY 100Y/(201H, 202H)/STA 220H, (221H/JBS 229H)/STA (250H, 255H)/(250H, 257H)
6. 5.5 courses from BIO (except BIO 100Y), ENV 234Y, HPS (323H, 333H), JLM, JZM, JZP, MGB 312H, ZOO (except ZOO 200Y, 214Y) containing at least 78 hours of lab (field courses are equivalent to 52P). Of the 5.5 courses, one must be from BIO 494Y, 495Y, ZOO 480Y- 496Y and at least three others at the 300+ level.

Major program (B.Sc.): M06931 (8 full courses or their equivalent)
1. BIO 150Y, 250Y, ZOO 252Y
2. CHM 137Y/151Y
3. CHM 240Y/248Y/GGR 270Y/JMB 170Y/MAT 135Y/137Y/157Y/PSY (201H, 202H)/STA 220H, (221H/JBS 229H)/STA (250H, 255H)/(250H, 257H)
4. Any other three courses in BIO (except BIO 100Y), ENV 234Y, HPS (323H, 333H), JLM, JZM, JZP, MGB 312H, ZOO (except ZOO 200Y, 214Y). At least two courses must be at the 300+ level.

Minor program (B.Sc.): R06931 (4 full courses or their equivalent)
1. BIO 150Y
2. BIO 250Y/ZOO 252Y
3. Any two other courses from BIO (except BIO 100Y), ENV 234Y, HPS (323H, 333H), JLM, JZM, JZP, MGB 312H, ZOO (except ZOO 200Y, 214Y). One course must be at the 300+ level


Students wishing to take PSY courses to fulfill the requirements of this program should take PSY 100Y. To take additional PSY courses, students must be enroled in a PSY program or have obtained a minimum of 70% in PSY 100Y.

NOTE: Students in this Program must notify the Department annually of their course selections, beginning in the Second Year. Specialist program: S12481 (13 full courses or their equivalent, including at least one 400-series course)
First Year: BIO 150Y; CHM 137Y/151Y; JMB 170Y/MAT 135Y/137Y/157Y
Higher Years:
1. BIO 250Y, 260H; PSY (290H, 291H)/ZOO 252Y
2. PSY 250H/ZOO 322H
3. GGR 270Y/PSY (201H, 202H)/STA 220H, (221H/JBS 229H)/STA (250H, 255H)/(250H, 257H)
4. ZOO 324Y; BIO 301H/302H/303H/306H/307H/308H/369Y/ZOO 304H/309Y/361H; BIO 494Y/495Y
5. 3.5 courses from BIO, ENV 234Y, JLM, JZM, JZP, PSY (except PSY 200H), ZOO (except ZOO 200Y, 214Y), 1.5 of which must be at the 300+ level. JZP 326H, 428H; PSY 260H, 310H, 362H, 369Y, 392H, 396H, 399Y, 450H, 460H, 490H; ZOO 333H, 362H are recommended for this program.


(see Section 4 for Key to Course Descriptions)

For Distribution Requirement purposes, all ZOO courses are classified as SCIENCE courses.

First Year Seminar 52T

Undergraduate seminar that focuses on specific ideas, questions, phenomena or controversies, taught by a regular Faculty member deeply engaged in the discipline. Open only to newly admitted first year students. It may serve as a breadth requirement course; see First Year Seminars: 199Y.

Organisms in their Environment (See "Biology")

Biology, Models, and Mathematics 78L

Applications of mathematics to biological problems in physiology, biomechanics, genetics, evolution, growth, population dynamics, cell biology, ecology and behaviour.
Prerequisite: OAC Biology
Co-requisite: BIO150Y


Aspects of Human Biology 52L, 26T

Our relationship to the past, present and future biosphere. Human biological and cultural evolution (mechanisms, changes in anatomy, behaviour, conceptualization, resource consumption, biotechnology); sexuality (development, theories and controversies in current research); population growth and environmental impact (carrying capacity, water and land use,; pollution, resource management); environmental health (biodiversity, food supply, pesticides, ethics and decision-making).

This course counts as a Science Distribution Requirement for students in all years and disciplines; particularly suitable for Humanities and Social Science students.

Evolutionary Theory 52L, 26T

Organic evolution by natural selection, both as formulated by Darwin and Wallace and modified by modern workers; speciation; palaeontology; evolution of higher taxa; mutation; natural selection; adaptations and coevolution. Essays and reading required.
Exclusion: BIO150Y/ZOO324Y

This course counts as a Science Distribution Requirement or students in all years and disciplines; particularly suitable for Humanities and Social Science students.

Statistics for Biologists (See "Biology")

Environmental Biology (See "Division of the Environment")

Introductory Animal Physiology 52L, 24P

The main ideas of physiology and the contribution of experimentation to our understanding of life processes. Uses examples from throughout the animal kingdom, and includes the physiology of nervous, muscular, sensory and endocrine systems, control mechanisms, salt and water balance, respiration, thermoregulation, reproduction and metabolic processes.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

Cell and Molecular Biology (See "Biology")

Genetics (See "Biology")

Comparative Anatomy 26L, 78P, 26T

The ontogeny and phylogeny of vertebrate structure are considered within the context of evolutionary theory. Functional aspects of the various organ systems are examined. Representative fish and mammals are dissected in detail and other forms are dealt with briefly to illustrate selected anatomical features and to provide practical exposure to vertebrate construction.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

Animal Biodiversity 52L, 78P

Introduction to the diversity of animals of the world, providing basic taxonomic skills, including use of computer data bases and identification keys, some understanding of collection protocols, a basic understanding of the natural economy, and a basic understanding of the role for sustainable development in the human/biodiversity interface. Laboratories feature living organisms when possible.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

Research Opportunity Program

Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. See Research Opportunity Program for details.


Marine Biology (See "Biology")

Arctic Ecosystems (See "Biology")

Tropical Ecology and Evolution (See "Biology")

Field Ornithology TBA

Lectures on the biology of birds, and intensive field work emphasizing field identification, census techniques, and habitat preferences. Student projects included. Offered for two weeks in the spring or summer at a field station.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y and permission of instructor

Inter-University Field Courses (See "Biology")

Field Biology Modules (See "Biology")

Biodiversity and Ecology in Indochina (See "Biology")

Tropical Marine Invertebrates TBA

A field and lecture course introducing students to the diversity of marine invertebrates. Focuses on taxonomy, structure and ecology of the varied invertebrate fauna of Bermuda's coral reefs and nearshore habitats. Field and laboratory work is extensive. Individual student projects are required. Offered in Bermuda; duration 4 weeks, June-July. Must snorkel or scuba dive.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y and permission of instructor

Population and Community Ecology (formerly BIO315Y) (See "Biology")

Behaviour and Behavioural Ecology 26L, 39P

A broad introduction to animal behaviour emphasizing concepts from ethology and behavioural ecology. Field and laboratory studies are undertaken.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

Evolution 52L, 78P

The principles of organic evolution. Evolutionary theory, natural selection, population variation and polymorphism, levels of selection, introductory population genetics, evolutionary ecology, optimization, the origin of species and higher taxa, tempo of evolution, labs use computers to introduce methods of classification; selection experiments using Drosophila.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y, any other Life Science course with laboratory

Recommended Co-requisite: BIO260H
Recommended preparation: A course in statistics

Endocrine Physiology 26L

The control of physiological processes by hormones secreted by the principal endocrine glands in vertebrate animals including man. Hormonal regulation of growth, fuel metabolism, cardiovascular activity, renal function, waer and electrolyte balance, reproduction and behaviour.
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Recommended preparation: ZOO252Y/PSL201Y/302Y/a course in physiology

Biological Rhythms 26L, 13T

Daily, monthly, annual and other rhythms and methods of measuring them. Behavioural and physiological aspects of biological clocks. The importance of rhythms in experimental design, in research on brain function, in affective disorders, and the adaptive value of rhythms to animals. (Given by the Departments of Psychology and Zoology)
Prerequisite: BIO150Y/PSY100Y; one full or two 200-series half-courses in the Sciences

Extracellular Matrix Macromolecules 26L, 13S

Examines expression, structure and function of the four major classes of ECM macromolecules: collagens, proteoglycans, elastins and glycoproteins. In addition to elaborating complex frameworks for pattern formation and giving tissues their resiliency, strength and adhesiveness, these macromolecules have pronounced effects on cell shape, migration, growth and differentiation. Emphasis is on modern techniques used to explore the morphoregulatory contribution(s) of individual macromolecules at a various stage of embryonic and adult development.
Prerequisite: BIO250Y

Developmental Biology 26L, 13T

Descriptive, experimental, and molecular analysis of development of various animals, representative of invertebrate and vertebrate groups. ZOO 330H is a recommended laboratory course.
Prerequisite: BIO250Y

Developmental Genetics 26L, 13T

The genetic basis of animal development, using recent studies on insects, nematodes, and vertebrates.
Prerequisite: BIO260H

Recommended Preparation: ZOO328H

Techniques in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology 78P, 26T

An intense three week laboratory-based course that gives students the opportunity to become familiar with three of the most widely used animal model systems: the primitive worm, C.elegans, the fruitfly, Drosophila, and the frog, Xenopus.
Prerequisite: BIO250Y, ZOO328H/329H or permission of instructor

Neurobiology 26L, 13T

Physiological mechanisms underlying integration and regulation in the nervous system. The physiological properties of excitable cells from membranes, through neurons to synapses, neural networks and up to whole animal functions.
Prerequisite: PSL201Y/302Y/ZOO252Y

Communication and Sensory Ecology 26L, 39P

Study of the origins and structure of animal communication systems, and their biological functions. A diversity of sensory channels (e.g., visual, acoustic, chemical, tactile, electric) are considered. Individual research projects are undertaken.
Prerequisite: Any half-or full course in animal behaviour

Comparative Endocrinology of Invertebrates 26L

The importance of neurohormones and hormones in the regulation of reproduction, growth, metamorphosis and metabolism in arthropods, especially insects and crustaceans, molluscs, and other invertebrates.
Prerequisite: ZOO252Y

Comparative Respiratory Physiology 26L, 13T

Comparative approach to studying the respiratory and cardiovascular adaptations of animals to their environment. Integrated control of behaviour, physiology and metabolism in whole organisms. Topics include exercise, diving, and sleep, with emphasis on vertebrate animals.
Prerequisite: ZOO252Y

Comparative Cellular Physiology 26L

In-depth survey of unique cellular adaptations of different tissues and organisms to overcome environmental stresses such as hypoxia. Emphasis is placed on cellular strategies, particularly second messanger responses, although systematic and whole organism responses will be investigated. Broad-ranging common strategies among diverse organisms are examined.
Prerequisite: ZOO252Y

Eukaryotic Molecular Biology (See "Biology")

Radiation Biology (formerly ZOO433H) 26L

The effects of radiation on plants and animals.
Prerequisite: BIO250Y/BOT251Y/ZOO252Y
Recommended preparation: A basic knowledge of biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics

History of Biology 52L, 26T

The historical evolution of modern biological science, focussing on the development of its methodology and its unifying theories, from Aristotle to DNA.
Exclusion: HPS323H, 333H
Prerequisite: BIO150Y, a course in BIO/BOT/HPS/MPL/ZOO

Parasitic Helminths and Arthropods 26L, 39P

Morphology, life cycles, evolutionary history and adaptations to a parasitic mode of life. Host-parasite relationships are explored through the study of various helminths and arthropod parasites, the diseases they cause, and our attempts to control them.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

Parasitic Protozoa 26L, 39P

Morphology, life cycles, evolutionary history and adaptations to a parasitic mode of life. Host-parasite relationships are explored through the study of various protozoan parasites, the diseases they cause, and our attempts to control them.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

Insect Biology 26L, 39P

Introduction to the morphology, physiology, development, behaviour, ecology, evolutionary history, and biological significance of insects. Labs include field trips and making an insect collection.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

Field Entomology TBA

A field and laboratory course to provide practical experience in techniques for collecting and studying insects. Students will each prepare an insect collection and/or conduct a small-scale research project. Includes intensive field work. Priority is given to students with ZOO360H. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: BIO150Y, and permission of instructor

Introduction to Macroevolution 26L, 26T

Explores patterns of large-scale evolutionary change, played out over large geographic expanses and extended periods of time. Integrates patterns with field and experimental studies to clarify evolutionary processes. Topics include origins of species and their adaptations, historical biogeography, coevolution, community evolution, and the role of evolutionary information in conservation and biodiversity initiatives. Tutorials emphasize methods used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y

Vertebrate Materials and Structures 13L, 39P

Structure and function of the vertebrate skeleto-muscular system from an engineering and materials science perspective. Topics include stress and strain, Young's modulus, Poisson's ration, linear and non-linear elasticity, elastomers, tensile and compressive strength, isotropy and anisotropy, toughness, beams, columns, bridges, trusses, levers, solid friction, lubrication theory, and properties of bones, cartilage, tendons, and muscles.
Prerequisite: ZOO263Y/320Y

Vertebrate Locomotion 13L, 39P

Mechanics of vertebrate locomotion; exercise physiology and the evolution of stamina in mammals and birds; terrestrial locomotion; aerial and aquatic locomotion, including aspects of fluid mechanics, drag, aspect ratios, swimming and flight.
Prerequisite: ZOO364H

Evolution of the Vertebrates 13L, 39P

The diversity and phylogeny of vertebrates as revealed by the fossil record; patterns of evolutionary change.
Prerequisite: ZOO263Y

Topics in Palaeobiology 39L

Introduction to the principles and methodology of palaeobiology, the significance of fossils in phylogenetic reconstruction, origin and long-term changes in major ecosystems, molecular evolution and the fossil record and importance of mass extinctions.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y; and a course in ANT/BIO/BOT/GLG/ZOO

Lectures in Freshwater Ecology (see "Biology")

Introduction to Freshwater Ecology (see "Biology")

Animal Distribution 13L, 39P/T

Principles of zoogeography and those aspects of ecology which bear on the distribution of animals.
Prerequisite: BIO302H/320Y/BOT430H/434Y/ENV234Y/GGR305H/ZOO324Y

Environmental Factors 39L

A lecture and seminar course dealing with the effects of physical and chemical environments on animals.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y
Recommended preparation: ZOO252Y, BIO320Y/ENV234Y

Biology of Amphibians 13L, 39P

Introduction to the natural history, evolution, and diversity of amphibians. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: ZOO263Y
Recommended preparation: ZOO324Y/362H

Avian Biology 13L, 39P

Behavioural ecology, ecomorphology, adaptive strategies, breeding behaviour, migration, vocalizations and cultural evolution, the origin of birds, conservation issues, the importance of birds to humans, and history of ornithology. Field trips.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y
Recommended preparation: ZOO263Y/324Y

Bird Diversity 13L, 39P

Systematics, seasonal distribution, zoogeography and evolution of modern birds. Laboratories use the comprehensive world-wide collections of birds at the Royal Ontario Museum. Field trips.
Prerequisite: ZOO386H

Biology of Mammals 13L, 39P

Natural history of mammals emphasizing ecology, community structure, behaviour, reproduction, and life history strategies; form and function related to different modes of life and physical environments. Laboratory includes a survey of Ontario mammals. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: ZOO252Y/322H/324Y

Mammalian Diversity 13L, 39P

The origin, evolution, zoogeography, phylogenetic relationships and diversity of mammals; speciation, extinction and current issues in conservation biology. Laboratory surveys mammalian orders, their characteristics, identification, and systematic relationships. (Offered in alternate years)
Prerequisite: ZOO324Y/362H

Conservation Biology (See "Biology")


NOTE BIO and ZOO 400-series courses are of three types. Those numbered up to 479 are advanced courses in a particular area of specialization that usually require relevant 300-series courses as prerequisites. Courses numbered 480-496 are equally advanced in level but are broader in scope, emphasizing the integration of related sub-disciplines, critical thinking and the synthesis of ideas often crossing disciplinary boundaries. These courses, generally taken in fourth year, demand active student participation, and typically involve several faculty. All students enroled in the BIO or ZOO Specialist programs as of 93W are required to take one 480-496 course. ZOO498Y and 499Y are Project courses to be arranged with individual faculty.

Regeneration in Vertebrates 26L, 39P

Essentially all phenomena associated with growth and developmental processes, particularly those related to vertebrate embryos, are intrinsic to the regeneration of amputated amphibian limbs. This course deals with the mechanisms controlling the various stages of epimorphic as well as tissue regeneration of limbs and the reconstruction of organs in vertebrates, as well as the causality of the morphogenetic events.
Prerequisite: BIO250Y/ZOO328H
Recommended preparation: ZOO252Y

Advanced Topics in Biological Rhythms 26S

Circadian rhythms with emphasis on non-photic entrainment and phase shifting of rhythms by behaviour (e.g., social interactions, or becoming active). Properties and physiological mechanisms for non-photic effects and comparisons with those for photic effects. Seminars and readings of original papers. Emphasis on basic principles, but possible applications are also discussed. (Given by the Departments of Psychology and Zoology)
Prerequisite: JZP326H

Advanced Topics in Neurobiology 52S

A seminar course dealing with recent research in selected areas of neurobiology.

Population Genetics (see "Biology")

Molecular Evolution (see "Biology")

Advanced Applications of Phylogenetic Systematics 13L, 26P

Computer-assisted methods for constructing and testing phylogenetic hypotheses are introduced through lectures and laboratories. Molecular, biochemical, and morphological data are compared and contrasted as indicators of relationships. Character coding, parsimony, compatibility, and congruence are discussed. Students prepare a comprehensive term paper based on analysis of individual data sets.
Prerequisite: ZOO362H
Recommended preparation: Basic PC literacy

Topics in Developmental Biology 104T

Using science fiction as a jumping off point, major questions in developmental biology are considered from cellular, genetic, and molecular perspectives. Conceptual frameworks, synthesis of ideas and critical analysis of data are stressed. The class may decide to do independent laboratory projects.
Prerequisites: ZOO328H/329H

Research in Physiology 26T, 78P

The experimental basis of modern animal physiology: techniques and instrumentation and their importance to current physiological concepts, using examples from the literature and the research programs of members of the Department.
Prerequisites: PSL302Y/ZOO252Y; one course from ZOO325H/332H/344H/346H/364H/365H/375H, 300-level laboratory courses(s) with 78P

Structure in Animal Function and Development 78T

Contrasting functional and developmental viewpoints on a range of biological structures from molecules to whole animals. Impact of physical and evolutionary constraints on optimal design. Topics will appeal to those interested in physiology, biomechanics, developmental biology and evolution.
Prerequisites: Two of BIO150Y/250Y/BOT251Y/ZOO252Y, 300-level course in BIO/ZOO

Seminar in Evolutionary Biology (See "Biology")

Seminar in Ecology (See "Biology")

Project in Zoology I TBA

A research project requiring the prior consent of a member of the Department to supervise the project. The topic is to be one mutually agreed on by the student and supervisor before enrolment in the course; they must also arrange the time, place, and provision of any materials. This course is normally open only to Fourth Year students with adequate background in Zoology. All students are required to make written and, perhaps, oral presentations of the results of their projects and participate in a poster session.

Project in Zoology II 104T

Allows students to do a second independent project, supervision of which must be different from ZOO498Y. Operates in the same manner as ZOO498Y.
Prerequisites: ZOO498Y

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Revised: April 6, 1998

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