|Faculty of Arts & Science
Ecologists and evolutionary biologists recognize that all life has evolved and that an understanding of the factors influencing the origin and maintenance of biological diversity − from genomes to ecosystems − underlies all life sciences and is critical to our stewardship of life on this planet. Society needs to make informed decisions about sustainable development, global temperature change, control of invasive species, the preservation of genetic diversity and ecosystem integrity, and the control of emerging infectious diseases. These are fundamentally evolutionary and ecological problems.
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology is a broad discipline that seeks to understand the origins, diversity, and distribution of organisms. The Department offers a very wide range of courses that deal with biological diversity, conservation biology, molecular evolution, population and quantitative genetics, genomics, animal behaviour, population, community, and ecosystem ecology, evolutionary and ecological theory, environmental biology, and systematics. Students exposed to these subjects come to realize that the ecological and evolutionary underpinnings of life present a host of scientific problems that are both intellectually challenging and critical to our future.
The Department offers six programs: a Specialist program in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Major programs in Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, and Environmental Biology; and two Minor programs in Environmental Biology. The Department also jointly offers programs with other departments: Specialist, Major, and Minor programs in Biology (with Cell & Systems Biology), and a Major program in Genome Biology (with Cell & Systems Biology and Molecular Genetics & Microbiology).
The EEB Specialist program (12 FCEs) provides an in-depth understanding of ecological and evolutionary patterns and processes, as well as the diversity of life forms (microbes, fungi, plants, animals). Concepts are taught using a broad array of approaches, including molecular studies, laboratory experiments, computer and mathematical modeling, and field studies. An integral part of the experience is to conduct independent research projects in the laboratory and/or field. There is a strong emphasis within the program on hands-on laboratory and fieldwork that complement the conceptual framework developed in lectures. Students in this program have the opportunity to concentrate in ecology, evolutionary biology, or behaviour. The EEB Major program (8 FCEs) provides a comprehensive understanding of ecology and evolution, also with concepts taught using a broad array of approaches – including opportunities to conduct independent research projects – and with an emphasis on hands-on laboratory and fieldwork.
Today, in an era of unprecedented global change, natural ecosystems are under attack and thousands of species are threatened with extinction and many more have experienced unprecedented declines. Students in the Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Major program (8 FCEs) will be equipped to aid in the response to what is perhaps humanity’s most pressing challenge, the conservation of biological diversity. Students in this program will take courses in their first and second years that provide foundations in ecology, evolutionary biology, biodiversity and conservation biology, environmental biology, mathematics, and statistics. In their upper years students will obtain in-depth knowledge about the diversity of living organisms and take advanced courses in ecology, evolution, and biodiversity and conservation biology, including a capstone course at the 400-level.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary field that integrates biological, chemical, and physical sciences to study human interactions with their environment. The Environmental Biology Major (8 FCEs) provides a broad background in biology that is essential to understand the impact of humans on other organisms and their environments. It provides students with an understanding of ecology, the diversity and function of living organisms, the physical and chemical environment, and the ways organisms interact with, and affect, ecosystem processes. Students are exposed to ecosystem management, issues related to environmental change, and the consequences of interactions between humans and the environment.
The two Environmental Biology Minor programs (4 FCEs) offer students an introduction to ecology, evolution, environmental biology, and organismal diversity. One Environmental Biology Minor program is offered jointly with the National University of Singapore): students complete 2.0 FCEs at the University of Toronto and 2.0 FCEs on exchange in Singapore, including a field course (NUS342H0) in tropical conservation biology. The courses at the National University of Singapore that are available to students in all EEB programs are listed below in this section of the Calendar, and are given NUS course descriptors (and not EEB).
Students entering their first year in the life sciences take BIO120H1 (offered by EEB) and BIO130H1 (offered by CSB). These courses are taken by students who have successfully completed Grade 12 Biology, SBI4U (or an equivalent course). BIO130H1 also requires Grade 12 Chemistry, SCH4U. One or both of these half courses are a prerequisite for almost all further courses in the life sciences.
Students requiring more information about BIO120H1 please contact the BIO120 Office, Earth Sciences Centre (25 Willcocks St.), Room 3045A, email@example.com
Note: The Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology’s former first-year course BIO150Y1 has been replaced with BIO120H1 and BIO220H1. The Department of Cell & System Biology’s courses BIO240H1 and BIO241H1 have been replaced with BIO130H1 and BIO230H1.
Students requiring more information about Ecology & Evolutionary Biology programs and courses please visit the departmental website or contact the Undergraduate Office, Earth Sciences Centre (25 Willcocks St.), Room 3055B, firstname.lastname@example.org, 416-978-2084. Associate Chair (Undergraduate): C. A. Goldman, ES3045C, 416-978-7163, email@example.com.
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Programs
Enrolment in this program requires the completion of 4.0 courses.
(8 full courses or their equivalent, including at least 2.0 FCEs at 300+ series with at least 0.5 FCE at 400 series)
First Year (2.0 FCEs): BIO120H1; BIO130H1; MAT135Y1/MAT137Y1/JMB170Y1
1. 2.0 FCEs: BIO220H1 (ecology and evolutionary biology); EEB225H1/STA220H1 (statistics); EEB255H1 (intro to biodiversity and conservation biology); ENV234H1 (environmental biology)
2. 1.5 FCE in organismal biology (with at least 0.5 FCE from Group 1 and 0.5 FCE from Group 2) from:
Group 1 (plant or microbial): BIO251H1; EEB268H1, EEB330H1, EEB331H1, EEB337H1, EEB340H1
Group 2 (animal): EEB263Y1, EEB266H1, EEB267H1, EEB356H1, EEB360H1, EEB382H1, EEB384H1, EEB386H1, EEB388H1, EEB389H1
3. 0.5 FCE in evolution: EEB318H1, EEB323H1, EEB362H1
4. 0.5 FCE in ecology from: EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB328H1, EEB370H1; EHJ351H1
5. 0.5 FCE: EEB365H1 (biology of conservation)
6. 0.5 FCE from: BIO251H1; EEB263Y1, EEB266H1, EEB267H1, EEB268H1, EEB318H1, EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB322H1, EEB323H1, EEB324H1, EEB328H1, EEB330H1, EEB331H1, EEB337H1, EEB340H1, EEB356H1, EEB360H1, EEB362H1, EEB370H1, EEB375H1, EEB382H1, EEB384H1, EEB386H1, EEB388H1, EEB389H1, EEB397Y1, EEB398H1, EEB399Y1, EEB428H1, EEB440H1, EEB459H1, EEB497H1/EEB498Y1, EEB499Y1; ENV334H1; EHJ351H1; FOR306H1, FOR307H1, FOR413H1
7. 0.5 FCE at 400 series from: EEB465H1, EEB466H1; field course, EEB401H1, EEB403H1, EEB404H1, EEB405H1, EEB406H1, EEB407H1, EEB409H1, EEB410H1; seminar, EEB495H1; research project (in biodiversity and/or conservation biology), EEB497H1/EEB498Y1/EEB499Y1
NOTE: BIO260H1/HMB265H1 (genetics) is recommended. Note that both BIO260H1 and HMB265H1 require BIO130H1 and BIO230H1; BIO230H1 requires both CHM138H1 and CHM139H1.
Students interested in law, economics, policy, or environmental studies may choose to pair their Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Major with another Major, such as Economics, Environmental Ethics, or Environmental Studies (all three are Arts program), or Science programs (e.g., Environment programs).
Enrolment in this program requires the completion of 4.0 courses.
(12 full courses or their equivalent, including at least 4.0 FCEs at the 300+-level, 1.0 of which must be at the 400-level)
First Year (3.0 FCEs): BIO120H1; BIO130H1; CHM138H1; CHM139H1; MAT135Y1/MAT137H1/MAT157H1
1. 2.0 FCEs: BIO220H1 (ecology and evolutionary biology); BIO230H1 (molecular and cell biology); BIO260H1/HMB265H1 (genetics); BIO251H1/BIO270H1 (plant/animal form and function)
2. 0.5 FCE in statistics from: EEB225H1 (recommended); PSY201H1; STA220H1/STA250H1/STA257H1; GGR270H1
3. 0.5 FCE in core evolution from: EEB318H1, EEB323H1, EEB362H1
4. 0.5 FCE in core ecology from: EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB328H1, EEB370H1
5. 0.5 FCE in organismal biology from: EEB263Y1, EEB266H1, EEB267H1, EEB268H1, EEB330H1, EEB331H1, EEB337H1, EEB340H1, EEB356H1, EEB360H1, EEB382H1, EEB384H1, EEB386H1, EEB388H1, EEB389H1
6. 0.5 FCE in environmental biology: ENV234H1
7. 1.0 FCE at 300+ series, from: EEB318H1, EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB322H1, EEB323H1, EEB324H1, EEB328H1, EEB330H1, EEB331H1, EEB337H1, EEB340H1, EEB356H1, EEB360H1, EEB362H1, EEB365H1, EEB370H1, EEB375H1, EEB382H1, EEB384H1, EEB386H1, EEB388H1, EEB389H1, EEB428H1, EEB440H1, EEB459H1, EEB460H1, EEB465H1, EEB466H1, EEB494H1, EEB495H1, EEB496H1; EHJ351H1, EHJ352H1; ENV334H1
Sub-total = 8.5 FCEs
8. 1.0 to 2.5 FCEs in at least two of the three following categories: (1) one field course (0.5 FCE) from EEB401H1, EEB403H1, EEB404H1, EEB405H1, EEB406H1, EEB407H1, EEB409H1, EEB410H1/FOR306H1; (2) one seminar (0.5 FCE) from EEB494H1, EEB495H1, EEB496H1; and/or (3) one independent research project course (1.0 FCE) from EEB498Y1/EEB499Y1 and concurrent research issues course EEB488H1 (0.5 FCE).
Sub-total = 9.5 or 11 FCEs (depending on options chosen in #8)
9. Select the remaining FCEs for a total of 12.0 FCEs (at least 1.0 must be 300+ series if 1.0 FCE is completed in #8 above) from: BIO271H1; all EEB courses (excluding EEB202H1/EEB214H1/EEB215H1/EEB216H1); EHJ351H1, EHJ352H1; ENV334H1; JHE353H1, JHE355H1; and no more than 1.0 FCE from the following (note that some courses may require prerequisites that are not listed within this program): ANT336H1, ANT333Y1, ANT335Y1, ANT430H1, ANT436H1; CSB328H1, CSB340H1, CSB349H1, CSB350H1, CSB352H1, CSB353H1, CSB430H1, CSB431H1, CSB452H1, CSB458H1, CSB472H1, CSB474H1; ENV315H1, ENV346H1; FOR200H1, FOR307H1, FOR413H1, FOR416H1, FOR417H1; GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR305H1, GGR307H1, GGR308H1, GGR403H1, GGR409H1; GLG202H1, GLG351H1, GLG436H1; JGE347H1, JGE348H1; PSY100H1, PSY260H1, PSY270H1, PSY280H1, PSY290H1, PSY390H1, PSY397H1, PSY492H1, PSY497H1 (note that many PSY courses have limited enrolment)
Total = 12 FCEs
NOTE: Students may wish to concentrate in ecology, evolutionary biology, or behaviour. Recommended EEB, EHJ and JHE courses for these concentrations are as follows:
Ecology: EEB255H1, EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB328H1, EEB365H1, EEB370H1, EEB375H1, EEB428H1, EEB440H1, EEB465H1, EEB495H1; EHJ351H1
Evolutionary Biology: EEB323H1, EEB324H1, EEB362H1, EEB440H1, EEB459H1, EEB460H1, EEB466H1, EEB494H1; EHJ352H1; JHE353H1, JHE355H1
Behaviour: EEB322H1, EEB496H1
Enrolment in this program requires the completion of 4.0 courses.
(8 full courses or their equivalent)
First Year (2.0 FCEs): BIO120H1; BIO130H1; (CHM138H1, CHM139H1)/CHM151Y1
1. 2.0 FCEs: BIO220H1; BIO230H1; BIO260H1/HMB265H1; EEB225H1/ STA220H1/STA250H1/STA257H1/ GGR270H1
2. 1.0 FCE from: BIO251Y1, BIO270H1, BIO271H1, EEB266H1, EEB267H1, EEB268H1, ENV234H1
3. 2.0 FCEs from: EEB318H1, EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB322H1, EEB323H1, EEB324H1, EEB328H1, EEB362H1, EEB365H1, EEB370H1, EEB375H1, EEB 428H1, EEB440H1, EEB459H1, EEB460H1, EEB465H1, EEB466H1 ; EHJ351H1, EHJ352H1
4. 0.5 FCE from: BIO251H1, BIO270H1, BIO271H1; EEB (excluding EEB202H1, EEB214H1, EEB215H1, EEB216H1); ENV234H1, ENV334H1; EHJ351H1, EHJ352H1; JHE353H1, JHE355H1; JMB170Y1/ MAT135H1/MAT136H1/MAT135Y1/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y
5. 0.5 FCE at the 400-series from: field course, EEB401H1, EEB403H1, EEB404H1, EEB405H1, EEB406H1, EEB407H1, EEB409H1, EEB410H1/ FOR306H1; seminar, EEB494H1, EEB495H1, EEB496H1; independent research project course, EEB497H1/EEB498Y1/EEB499Y1; advanced lecture/discussion course, EEB428H1, EEB440H1, EEB459H1, EEB460H1, EEB465H1, EEB466H1
Enrolment in this program requires the completion of 4.0 courses.
(8 full courses or their equivalent, at least 2.0 FCEs at 300+ series with at least 0.5 FCE at 400 series)
First Year (3.0 FCEs): BIO120H1; (CHM138H1, CHM139H1)/CHM151Y1; MAT135Y1/MAT137Y1/JMB170Y1; PHY131H1/PHY151H1 or BIO130H1
1. 2.0 FCEs: BIO220H1 (ecology and evolutionary biology); ENV234H1, ENV334H1 (environmental biology); EEB225H1/STA220H1/GGR270H1 (statistics)
2. 0.5 FCE in biological diversity and function from: BIO251H1, BIO270H1; EEB266H1, EEB267H1, EEB268H1, EEB340H1; BIO260H1/HMB265H1 (note that both require BIO130H1 and BIO230H1)
3. 0.5 FCE in physical environment from: CHM210H1; GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1; GLG202H1; PHY235H1 (requires MAT135Y1/MAT137Y1 and PHY131H1/PHY151H1)
4. 0.5 in core ecology from: EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB328H1
5. 1.0 FCE from: EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB328H1, EEB365H1, EEB370H1, EEB375H1; EHJ351H1; FOR305H1, FOR307H1; GGR305H1, GGR307H1, GGR308H1; GLG351H1; ENV315H1
6. 0.5 FCE at the 400-series from: field course, EEB401H1, EEB403H1, EEB405H1, EEB406H1, EEB407H1, EEB409H1, EEB410H1/FOR418H1/GGR490H1/GLG445H1, GLG448H1; seminar/lecture course, EEB428H1, EEB495H1/JFG470H1/GGR403H1, GGR409H1/GLG436H1; independent research project, EEB497H1, EEB498Y1, EEB499Y1.
This program can be combined with other Environmental programs (see Centre for Environment) as well as Science (e.g., Chemistry, Geology) and Social Science (e.g., Economics) programs.
Enrolment in this program requires the completion of 4.0 courses.
Consult the Undergraduate Office in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
(4 full courses or their equivalent; must include at least one full-course equivalent at the 300+-level)
Students who have taken BIO150Y1, do not take BIO120H1 and BIO220H1 in this program.
1. 1.5 FCEs: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1; ENV234H1
2. 0.5 FCE in organismal biology: EEB266H1, EEB267H1, EEB268H1
3. 2.0 FCEs (courses in both ecology and evolution are recommended) from: EEB318H1, EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB322H1, EEB323H1, EEB324H1, EEB362H1, EEB370H1, EEB375H1; EHJ351H1, EHJ352H1; ENV334H1 (recommended); NUS; no more than one field course from EEB401H1, EEB403H1, EEB405H1, EEB406H1, EEB407H1, EEB409H1, EEB410H1; FOR306H1; NUS343H0
This Type 3 minor program represents a unique opportunity to study environmental biology in a different cultural environment. For more information, contact the Centre for International Experience (cie.utoronto.ca).
(4 full courses or their equivalent)
1. 1.5 FCEs (at U of T): (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1; ENV234H1
2. 0.5 FCE (at U of T) from: EEB266H1, EEB267H1, EEB268H1, EEB318H1, EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB322H1, EEB362H1, EEB370H1, EEB375H1; EHJ351H1, EHJ352H1; ENV334H1 (recommended)
3. 1.5 FCEs (at National University of Singapore) from: NUS341H0, NUS342H0, NUS344H0, NUS346H0, NUS348H0, NUS349H0 (see course descriptions below)
4. 0.5 FCE field course (at National University of Singapore): NUS343H0
Scientific study of marine life and the marine environment. Physical characteristics of oceans, marine habitats and ecosystems, diversity of marine life and their adaptations to marine environments, impact of human activities and management systems. (Co-listed as LSM 4261 at National University of Singapore)Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1, ENV234H1/ENV234Y1
The impact of habitat loss on biodiversity, conservation management strategies, ecological theory of conservation, socio-economic issues, and conservation options and challenges, especially in SE Asia. (Co-listed as LSM 4262 at National University of Singapore)Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1, ENV234H1/ENV234Y1
Introduction to field biology including sampling design and execution, data management and analysis. Includes a 7-day field experience (currently on Pulau Tioman, Malaysia) with trips to coastal, mangrove and freshwater habitats, and primary and secondary forests. Students will work in small groups to conduct mini-projects. (Co-listed as LSM 4263 at National University of Singapore)Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1, ENV234Y1/ENV234H1
The relationships that organisms have with each other and with the environment. Key concepts and ultimate and proximate explanations of animal interactions and other life history characteristics, with examples from diverse animals and ecological systems. Students also evaluate contemporary literature on relevant current issues. (Co-listed as LSM 4253 at National University of Singapore)Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1,ENV234H1/ENV234Y1
Aspects of current environmental change and its effects on biological systems, including rising carbon-dioxide concentrations, climate change, loss of biodiversity, and eutrophication. Global warming, land-use changes, invasive species, fire, carbon sequestration, carbon mitigation, and global (macro) ecology. Classroom projects, discussions, and debates. (Co-listed as LSM 3272 at National University of Singapore)Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1,ENV234H1/ENV234Y1
An examination of the physiological and biochemical adaptations of animals which permit them to thrive in diverse environments. Focuses on how animals adapt to natural (e.g., oxygen availability, salinity changes, water availability) and anthropogenic (e.g., greenhouse effect, UV radiation and oxidative stresses, xenobiotics) environmental challenges. Includes applications to biomedicine, agriculture, ecology, and environmental conservation. (Co-listed as LSM 3262 at National University of Singapore)Prerequisite: BIO270H1
An introduction to the study of inland waters. Lectures, directed readings and discussions, field trips, and project work focus on aquatic biodiversity and ecology, aquatic conservation, freshwater ecosystem services, threats to freshwaters, anthropogenic effects, sustainable water use, invasive species, and policies, regulation and management of freshwater resources in local and international contexts. (Co-listed as LSM 4264 at National University of Singapore)Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1,ENV234H1/ENV234Y1
The 199Y1 and 199H1 seminars are designed to provide the opportunity to work closely with an instructor in a class of no more than twenty-four students. These interactive seminars are intended to stimulate the students’ curiosity and provide an opportunity to get to know a member of the professorial staff in a seminar environment during the first year of study. Details here.
Principles and concepts of evolution and ecology related to origins of adaptation and biodiversity. Mechanisms and processes driving biological diversification illustrated from various perspectives using empirical and theoretical approaches. Topics include: genetic diversity, natural selection, speciation, physiological, population, and community ecology, maintenance of species diversity, conservation, species extinction, global environmental change, and invasion biology.Prerequisite: Grade 12 Biology or equivalent. Students without high school Biology must consult the BIO120 Office (BIO120@utoronto.ca)
An introduction to the evolution and sociobiology of the sexes and the consequence of these for sexual and reproductive health of individuals and populations. Topics include: sociobiology of sexual interactions, sexual selection, reproductive biology of the sexes, sexual behaviours, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual and reproductive health, and public health intervention. A joint course offered by the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Dalla Lana School of Public Health. (Not offered in 2011-12.)Distribution Requirement Status: This is a Science course
Applications of mathematics to biological problems in physiology, genetics, evolution, growth, population dynamics, cell biology, ecology, and behaviour. Mathematical topics include: power functions and regression; exponential and logistic functions; binomial theorem and probability; calculus, including derivatives, max/min, integration, areas, integration by parts, substitution; differential equations, including linear constant coefficient systems; dynamic programming; Markov processes; and chaos. This course is intended for students in Life Sciences.Corequisite: BIO120H1
Dynamics of genetic and ecological change in biological systems, from genomes to ecosystems. Evolutionary genetic and ecological perspectives on wide-ranging topics including disease, aging, sexual conflict, genetics of human differences, conservation, and global climate change. Applications of evolutionary, ecological, and molecular-genetic principles and processes. Responsibilities of human societies in a changing world.Prerequisite: BIO120H1
Introduction to structure, function, and ecology of vegetative and reproductive processes in plants with a focus on flowering plants and gymnosperms. Lectures and labs emphasize photosynthesis, respiration, mineral nutrition, transport processes, patterns of plant growth and development, the role of hormones in development, photomorphogenesis, and plant reproduction.Prerequisite: BIO120H1/BIO150Y1
The importance of plants to society. Topics include: plant biology, domestication of crop plants, plant breeding and genetic engineering, biological invasions, conservation, biodiversity and genetic resources, ecological implications of advances in modern plant science, macroevolution of plants, forest utilization.Exclusion: BIO120H1/BIO150Y/BOT202Y1
Introduction to the diversity of living organisms, including microorganisms, fungi, plants and animals, with an emphasis on
evolution, ecology and conservation.
A course for non-science students in all years and disciplines.
Evolution and adaptation through natural selection. Concepts and application based on faunal life goals of habitat survival, food acquisition, predator avoidance, and reproduction. Topics include: speciation, mutation, co-evolution, symbiosis, pollination, cannibalism, parasitism, eusociality, and sexual and parental conflict. Essays, debates, and reading required.
Ffor non-science students in all years and disciplines.Exclusion: BIO120H1/BIO150Y1/ZOO214Y1/ZOO324Y1
Introduction to ecological, evolutionary, and physiological adaptations of marine mammals to their aquatic environment. Issues of conservation and environmental biology are also covered. Tutorials will be supplemented with video and other teaching tools including the use of anatomical specimens. For non-science students in all years and disciplines. (Not offered in 2011-12).Exclusion: BIO120H1/BIO150Y/BIO252Y1/BIO270H1/ PSL280H1/PSL378H1/PSL379H1/PSL380H1/PSL480H1/SCI199Y1: Marine Mammals in Their Environment/ ZOO252Y1/or enrolment in a Science program
A statistics course designed especially for life science students, using examples from ecology and evolution where appropriate. Students learn to choose and use statistics that are appropriate to address relevant biological questions and hypotheses. Lectures and computer labs will be used to cover the following methods: sampling and experimental design, data exploration, correlation, regression, ANOVA, Chi-square, and non-parametric tests.Prerequisite: BIO120H1/BIO150Y1
This multidisciplinary course draws on elements from geology, soil science, biology and ecology to understand past and present environments and human impacts on landscapes and ecosystems. Emphasis on the structure, functioning and connectivity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Field trips and labs. Mandatory weekend day-long field trip (total cost about $15).Prerequisite: BIO120H1/GLG102H1/GGR100H1/FOR200H1/FOR201H1 or permission of department
Introduction to the study biological diversity and its conservation. Topics include: valuing life on Earth, defining and measuring biodiversity, conservation strategies and tactics, identifying threats, quantifying risk, extinction, population genetics and demographic theory, protection and recovery. Active participation in lectures and tutorials, class presentations, and local field trips required.Prerequisite: BIO120H1/BIO150Y1
The ontogeny and phylogeny of vertebrate structure are considered within the context of evolutionary theory. Functional aspects of the various organ systems are examined. Representative fish and mammals are dissected in detail and other forms are dealt with briefly to illustrate selected anatomical features and to provide practical exposure to vertebrate construction.Prerequisite: BIO120H1/BIO150Y1
This course explores the diversity of invertebrate animals (e.g., sponges, jellyfish, flatworms, molluscs, annelids, nematodes, arthropods, and echinoderms), focusing on the special attributes and biological requirements of different groups, how they function in their natural environments, and what makes each group vulnerable to human-based exploitation. Labs emphasize recognition of major groups, and use living organisms where possible, but involve no invasive procedures.Prerequisite: BIO120H1/BIO150Y1
This course explores the diversity of chordate animals (vertebrates, tunicates, and lancelets), focusing on morphological, physiological, ecological and behavioural traits that make each group special and how those traits increase vulnerability to human-based exploitation. Labs involve living organisms whenever possible, but only for display purposes.Prerequisite: BIO120H1/BIO150Y1
Introduction to the biology of algae, fungi, and land plants. Lectures and labs emphasize the diversity of organisms with a focus on life cycles, ecology, and evolution.Prerequisite: BIO120H1/150Y1
Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. Details here.Distribution Requirement Status: This is a Science course
Principles and practice of evolutionary biology since Darwin. Topics may include: phylogeny, speciation, mutation and neutral evolution, population genetic variation, quantitative genetics, molecular evolution, natural selection and adaptation, evolutionary conflict and cooperation, and levels of selection.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1
Distribution of species; population growth and regulation; interactions within and among species; food webs; harvesting of natural resources; diseases; pest control. Basic ecological principles and applied issues discussed. Labs include experiments and computer simulations.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1; JMB170Y1/(MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/MAT135Y1/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1; and a course in statistics from EEB225H1 (recommended); PSY201H1; STA220H1/STA250H1/STA257H1; GGR270H1; HMB325H1; PCL376H1
A comprehensive survey of community ecology: nature and analysis of community structure; disturbance and community development; species interactions; community assembly processes. As part of the course requirements there will be two day field trips held on weekends. A fee of approximately $15 will be charged for each field trip. Both the field trips and computer exercises in weekly labs provide training in sampling, simulation, and data analysis.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/ BIO150Y1, and a course in statistics from EEB225H1 (recommended); PSY201H1; STA220H1/STA250H1/STA257H1; GGR270H1
A broad introduction to animal behaviour emphasizing concepts from ethology and behavioural ecology, including foraging, predation, mating systems, parental care and behaviour genetics. Field and laboratory studies are undertaken.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1, and a course in statistics from EEB225H1 (recommended); PSY201H1; STA220H1/STA250H1/STA257H1; GGR270H1
Evolutionary biology rests on a foundation of evolutionary genetics. This course focuses on the core ideas in population genetics and extends to evolutionary genomics. Students are exposed to the mathematical theory underlying evolutionary genetics and are expected to learn the mathematical foundations underlying these ideas. Topics include the population genetics of mutation, migration, drift, and selection, analysis of sequence variation, and the evolution of sexual reproduction.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y, BIO260H1/HMB265H1
Empirical and theoretical approaches to key areas of research including natural selection, sexual selection, and life histories. Other topics may include phenotypic plasticity, speciation, co-evolution, and quantitative genetics.Prerequisite: EEB318H1/EEB323H1
An advanced treatment of the physiological mechanisms controlling plant and animal distribution and ecological success. Topics of focus include photosynthesis and resource balance, water and nutrient relations, temperature effects, and adaptations to abiotic stress.Prerequisite: BIO251H1/BIO251Y1/BIO270H1/BIO252Y1 or an equivalent course in physiology
The theoretical foundations of taxonomy and the types of evidence used in constructing plant classifications. Labs emphasize taxonomic characters and their uses. Includes an independent taxonomic project.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1
Topics include fungal systematics, morphology, physiology, and ecology. The roles of fungi in the environment and their importance to man. A weekend field trip explores the natural occurrence of fungi. Labs introduce the techniques used for morphological and molecular identification, and for isolation in pure culture. Students use fungal cultures to conduct an independent experimental research project.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1
Applied issues in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Topics include: ecology of agro-ecosystems and other human-managed ecosystems, bioindicators of anthropogenic impacts, ecosystem restoration, and adaptive management. Field trips and laboratory exercises. Group projects address local management/restoration issues.Not offered in 2011-2012.Prerequisite: ENV234H1
This course examines variation in morphology, predominant breeding systems, dispersal syndromes, and other features families of vascular plants in the Ontario flora. Students learn key characteristics for identification of important groups of free-sporing and seed-producing plants in the context of green plant evolution and phylogeny.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1
This course focuses on land plant origins and subsequent diversification of land plant vegetative and reproductive form and function. Discussions synthesize morphological and anatomical knowledge from living organisms and fossil records with cellular, physiological, and molecular information on the developmental tool kit of land plants and their ancestors throughout geological time. Topics address the evolution of vegetative and reproductive meristems; stem, leaf, and root architecture; vascular tissue; the ovule habit; fertilization processes; and pollination biology.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1
Predicting human population growth is important to society. How many people can Earth support and what constraints on lifestyle will be imposed by different population sizes? Topics include: principles of demography; history of and scientific bases for predicting human population growth; uncertainty in growth predictions; ecological consequences of population growth; impacts of behavioural or evolutionary change on population growth; philosophical and political issues affecting human population regulationPrerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1, JMB170Y1/(MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/MAT135Y1/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1
Human genome diversity and evolution with a focus on current research. The course integrates applications of human evolutionary genomics to the understanding of human history and adaptation, the causes of disease, and genome structure and function. Topics include: comparative genomics, population genomics of adaptation, association mapping, repetitive/selfish DNA, and gene duplication.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/150Y, BIO260H1/HMB265H1
An examination of major ideas about biological evolution from the 18th century to the 1930s and of their impact on scientific and social thought. Topics include the diversity of life and its classification, the adaptation of organisms to their environment, Wallace’s and Darwin’s views on evolution by natural selection, sexual selection, inheritance from Mendel to T.H. Morgan, eugenics, and the implications of evolution for religion, gender roles, and the organization of society.Prerequisite: 6 full courses or equivalent including (BIO120H1,BIO220H1)/150Y1
An examination of ideas about biological evolution from the 1930s to the present. Topics include the Modern Synthesis, population genetics, the concept of biological species, ecology, sociobiology, and creationism.Prerequisite: 6 full courses or equivalent including (BIO120H1,BIO220H1)/150Y1
Lectures provide an introduction to the morphology, physiology, development, behaviour, evolutionary history and biological significance of insects. Practicals will include demonstrations, multimedia, and group discussions. (Offered in alternate years; offered in 2011-2012).Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1
Introduction to the morphology, physiology, development, behaviour, ecology, evolutionary history, and biological significance of insects. Labs include making an insect collection and learning the major groups of insects. Mandatory one week of fieldwork in southern Ontario at the end of August. EEB360H1 can fulfill a programs field course requirement. (Offered in alternate years; not offered in 2011-12).Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1
Explores patterns of large-scale evolutionary change, played out over large geographic expanses and extended periods of time. Integrates patterns with field and experimental studies to clarify evolutionary processes. Topics include: origins of species and their adaptations, historical biogeography, co-evolution, community evolution, radiations and extinctions, fossils and macroevolutionary patterns, and the role of evolutionary information in conservation and biodiversity initiatives. Tutorials emphasize methods used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and the sequence of character evolution.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1
An in-depth look at the biological pillars of conservation biology: taxonomy and systematics, genetics, and ecology. Biodiversity is considered at the level of species, populations, habitats, and ecosystem function. Topics include: levels and rates of loss of biodiversity, processes that generate biodiversity, modern approaches to studying biodiversity, conservation genetics, and ecosystem modelling.Prerequisite: Prerequisites for 2011-12: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1 Prerequisites for 2012-13: BIO220H1, EEB255H1
Introduction to mathematical modeling techniques used in ecological and evolutionary theory. Applications include understanding the dynamics of populations and ecological communities and the evolution of ecologically important characteristics within species. Includes applied linear algebra, dynamic systems models, optimization techniques, and game theory. Requires good knowledge of first-year calculus, but not extensive mathematical background. Computer lab once a week. (Not offered 2011/12)Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1, (MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/MAT135Y1/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1
A lecture and seminar course dealing with the effects of physical and chemical environments on animals.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1
The systematics, morphology, ecology, behaviour, biogeography, and conservation of fishes. Identification of major groups of fish; what makes each group biologically special and how those unique traits might contribute to conservation concerns. Laboratories focus on exercises designed to highlight how ichthyologists actually do research.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1
Introduction to the natural history, evolution, and diversity of amphibians. (Offered in 2011-2012 as EEB384H1S)Exclusion: ZOO384H1
Avian diversity and evolution, form and function, adaptations for flight, biogeography, migration and navigation, reproduction, sexual selection, social behaviour, population ecology, and conservation. Tutorials will largely focus on avian anatomy, functional morphology, evolution, and classification.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1
Natural history, evolution, form and function, diversity, and conservation of mammals. (Not offered in 2011-2012)Prerequisite: BIO(120H1, 220H1)/150Y1
An intermediate research project requiring the prior consent of a member of the Department to supervise the project. The topic is to be one mutually agreed on by the student and supervisor. They must arrange the time, place, and provision of any materials and submit to the Undergraduate Office a signed form of agreement outlining details prior to being enrolled. This course is open to highly self-motivated students who are in their Third Year and have a strong interest in ecology and/or evolutionary biology. Students are required to write up the results of their research in a formal paper, often in the format of a research article, and may be required to present the results at a poster session and/or participate in an oral presentation. Students should contact their potential supervisors over the summer before classes begin in September. Information regarding how to register for the course is available on the EEB website.Prerequisite: Permission of department
An instructor-supervised group project in an off-campus setting. Details here.Distribution Requirement Status: This is a Science course
An instructor-supervised group project in an off-campus setting. Details here.Distribution Requirement Status: This is a Science course
NOTE: Not all field courses (EEB401H1 to EEB410H1) are offered each year; check the EEB website (field course page) to determine which courses are offered in a given year. EEB494H1, EEB495H1, EEB496H1 are seminar courses that are advanced in level and broad in scope, emphasizing the integration of related sub-disciplines, critical thinking, and the synthesis of ideas often crossing disciplinary boundaries. Fundamental to these courses are group discussions among peers, facilitated by faculty, and student presentations.
A two-week field course offered in May at the Huntsman Marine Science Centre, St. Andrews, New Brunswick. Lectures and seminars with intensive field and laboratory work on different marine habitats and the animals and plants associated with them. Student research projects included.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/150Y1 and permission of department
A two-week field course offered in May or August introducing students to the diversity of biological communities in the tropics focusing on ecological and evolutionary interactions. Plant and animal communities of the New World tropics are compared and contrasted with temperate communities. Student research projects included.
Next offered in August 2012 (location: Peru).
A two-week field course offered in May or August introducing students to the diversity of plants found in southern Ontario in the wild and to the field, herbarium, and laboratory methods used in plant organismal biology research. Topics include plant collecting, identification, preparation of voucher specimens, reproductive biology, and diversity and phylogeny.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/BIO150Y1 and permission of department
A two-week field course offered in May or August at U of T’s Koffler Scientific Reserve, King City, Ontario. Students learn the natural history of the region and conduct a research project in the field. Student research projects included.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/150Y1 and permission of department
A two-week field course offered May to August by another Ontario university (to various locations) as part of the Ontario Universities Program in Field Biology (OUPFB). The selection of field course modules are announced in January. For registration information consult the Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Undergraduate Office or EEB’s field course web page.Prerequisite: Varies on module selected
A two-week field course at a high mountain field station in the summer. Students learn the natural history of alpine and subalpine biomes and investigate major abiotic and biotic interactions. Required projects catalogue natural diversity, examine species interactions, or assess abiotic influences and stresses on high-altitude organisms and their environment.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/150Y1, BIO251H1/251Y1 or (BIO270H1, BIO271H1)/252Y1 and permission of department
A two-week field course in May at the Wildlife Research Station in Algonquin Park, Ontario. Lectures on the biology of birds with daily field work emphasizing field identification (visual and acoustic), field research methodologies, analysis of census data, habitat relationships, and behaviour of territoriality, reproduction and migration. Student research projects included.Prerequisite: (BIO120H1, BIO220H1)/150Y1 and permission of department
A two-week field course in August. The location alternates each summer: either the Harkness Fisheries Research Laboratory in Algonquin Park, Ontario or the coastal waters of the Greater Toronto region. Field and laboratory exercises demonstrate how interactions between physical, chemical, and biological parameters are crucial in understanding lake ecosystems. Fundamental and applied issues are discussed. Students collect, analyse, and interpret data, and complete a class project and an individual project.Prerequisite: An introductory biology or introductory physical geography course, and permission of department
An examination of organism, population, and ecosystem responses to long-term environmental change occurring at the global scale, with emphasis on human caused perturbation to climate and the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrolic cycles and their ecological effects.Prerequisite: 1.0 FCEs from EEB at 300+ series or permission of department
Major concepts in ecology and evolution from the perspective of plant-animal interactions. The richness of interactions between plants and animals is explored including antagonistic interactions (e.g., herbivory, carnivorous plants), mutualistic interactions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, ant-plant associations), and interactions involving multiple species across trophic levels.
A focus on theoretical population genetics, using mathematical models to understand how different evolutionary forces drive allele frequency change. Students learn how to mathematically derive classic results in population genetics. Topics include drift, coalescence, the relationship between population and quantitative genetics, selection in finite populations, and mutation load. (Offered in alternate years, offered in 2011-2012)Prerequisite: BIO260H1/HMB265H1, EEB323H1
Processes of evolution at the molecular level, and the analysis of molecular data. Gene structure, neutrality, nucleotide sequence evolution, sequence evolution, sequence alignment, phylogeny construction, gene families, transposition.Prerequisite: BIO240H1/BIO250Y1/BIO255Y1, BIO260H1/HMB265H1
Conservation biology from a Canadian and global perspective including targets for conservation, methods of assessment, tools for recovery, key philosophical issues, policy, and legislation. This course teaches the theory and practice of real-world conservation.Prerequisite: Prerequisite for 2011-12: A minimum of 10 FCEs Prerequisite for 2012-13: EEB365H1
This course uses the collections, research, and public gallery areas of the Royal Ontario Museum to expose students to the ways in which biodiversity is discovered, analyzed, and interpreted in a museum setting. Topics include: morphological and molecular approaches, taxonomy, classification, bioinformatics and e-taxonomy, and the interpretation of biodiversity for the public. Labs include student projects and a one-day field trip on a weekend (cost about $20).Prerequisite: Prerequisite for 2011-12: EEB362H1/EEB365H1 and at least one organismal course from EEB266H1, EEB267H1, EEB268H1, EEB330H1, EEB331H1, EEB337H1, EEB356H1, EEB360H1, EEB382H1, EEB384H1, EEB386H1, EEB388H1, EEB389H1 Prerequisite for 2012-13: EEB365H1 and at least one organismal course from EEB266H1, EEB267H1, EEB268H1, EEB330H1, EEB331H1, EEB337H1, EEB356H1, EEB360H1, EEB382H1, EEB384H1, EEB386H1, EEB388H1, EEB389H1
This course is taken concurrently by students who are enrolled in EEB498Y1 Advanced Research Project in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, and uses a combination of seminars, discussions, and presentations (including presentations by students) designed to cover issues commonly encountered when conducting research in ecology and evolutionary biology. Topics may include experimental design, effective use of statistics, scientific writing and publishing, public communication, ethics, and career development. Students will be required to attend departmental seminars. This half-course runs from September to April and meets in alternate weeks. Students who apply to EEB497H1 in the fall session can also apply to enrol concurrently in EEB488H1Y.Prerequisite: Permission of the department
Topics include evolutionary ecology and genetics, biodiversity, and behavioural ecology. Primary literature and research seminars form the basis for class discussion and short seminars. Student-led discussions.Prerequisite: EEB323H1, EEB324H1; and permission of department
Analysis and discussion of current topics in ecology. The topics vary from year to year. The seminar activities include both oral and written analyses of current research articles, and may include group projects. Critical discussion of research methods is an important component of the course.Prerequisite: EEB319H1/EEB321H1; one of EEB319H1/EEB321H1/EEB324H1/EEB365H1/ ENV234H1/ENV234Y1; and permission of department
Topics in behavioural ecology including predator-prey interactions, host-parasite interactions, mate choice, and foraging. Other topics for general discussions may include animal emotions, consciousness, culture and welfare. Evaluation based on presentations, participation in class discussions, and written assignments.Prerequisite: EEB322H1; one of EEB318H1/EEB323H1/EEB324H1/EEB362H1, PSY397H1/JZP326H1, PSY362H1/PSY390H1/PSY392H1, or an EEB field course; and permission of department
An independent studies half-course allowing students to conduct research which is supervised by a faculty member in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Highly motivated fourth-year students will work closely with a supervisor, and will be required to write up the results of their research in a final research paper. Students should contact a potential supervisor well before classes begin in the fall, winter, or summer session. Information on how to apply for the course is available on the EEB website. Students cannot take more than two independent research courses of EEB 497H1, 498Y1, and 499Y1, and the second project must be with a different supervisor. Students who apply to EEB497H1 in the fall session can also apply to enrol concurrently in EEB488H1Y.Prerequisite: Permission of department
An advanced research project (a literature review alone is not sufficient) requiring the prior consent of a member of the Department to supervise the project. The topic is to be one mutually agreed on by the student and supervisor. They must arrange the time, place, and provision of any materials and submit to the Undergraduate Office a signed form of agreement outlining details prior to being enrolled. This course is normally open only to highly self-motivated students who are in their Fourth-Year and have adequate background in ecology and/or evolutionary biology. Students are required to write up the results of their research in a formal paper, often in the format of a research article, and are also required to present the results at a poster session and/or oral presentation. Students should contact their potential supervisors over the summer before classes begin in September. Information regarding how to register for the course is available on the EEB website. Students in this course are also concurrently enrolled in EEB488H1Y Research Issues in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.Prerequisite: Permission of department
Allows students to do another independent project, supervision of which must be different from EEB497H1/EEB498Y1. Operates in the same manner as EEB498Y1.Prerequisite: EEB497H1/EEB498Y1 and permission of department