Human Biology Courses

Key to Course Descriptions.

For Distribution Requirement purposes, all HMB courses are classified as SCIENCE courses, except HMB303H1, HAJ453H1, and HMB498Y1 that are SCIENCE or SOCIAL SCIENCE courses. Please see course descriptions below for information.

| Course Winter Timetable |

Introduction to Neuroscience [24L, 12T]

A survey of brain systems, including evolution and development of the nervous system, brain stem system for defensive and approach responses, limbic and cortical systems for learning, and higher brain functions. Techniques for study of brain systems including pharmacology, gene targeting and human brain imaging are introduced.

Exclusion: PSY290H1/NRS201H1/HMB204H1
Prerequisite: BIO150Y1; PSY100H1/101Y1
Pre- or co-requisite: PSL300H1/PSL302Y1/BIO252Y1/(BIO270H1, BIO271H1)

Introduction to Genes, Genetics, and Biotechnology [24L, 12T]

Interdisciplinary course consisting of three parts: the genetic basis, tools and techniques of biotechnology; medical, environmental and agricultural applications; and ethical, legal and social aspects of biotechnology (including approaches to risk assessment, reduction and acceptance). A prime example used in the third part is the controversy over genetically modified foods.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y1
Pre- or co-requisite: BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1

Introduction to Health and Disease [24L, 12P]

An introductory course in Health and Disease using an interdisciplinary approach that integrates developmental human biology with perspectives from the Social Sciences. An exploration of the key concepts and approaches that are necessary for understanding the dynamic nexus of human health and disease.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y1

Introduction to Global Health [24L, 12T]

An introductory course covering the theories, operational components and strategies of implementing primary health care in developing countries. Topics include education, control of vector borne diseases, essential drug provision, maternal and child health and nutrition and incorporation of alternative and complementary technologies, community participation and deployment of health service providers.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y1

Introduction to Human Behavioural Biology        [24L, 12T]

This introductory course explores the biology of selected types of human behaviour. The topics chosen represent areas where recent understanding has dramatically shifted or where controversies still exist. Critical analysis of the available scientific evidence is used to inform opinion.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y1, PSY100H1

Exclusion: HMB200H1/PSY290H1/NRS201H1

Scientific Controversies and Misconceptions [16L, 8S]

Students engage in a variety of current, high profile misconceptions in human biology to change and extend incorrect common beliefs; to become familiar with the process of scientific inquiry; and to develop thinking, analytical and communication skills. Scientific misconceptions are sourced from current issues.
Prerequisite: BIO150Y1
Pre- or co-requisite: BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1; BCH210H1

General and Human Genetics [24L, 12T]

An introduction to classical and modern methods of genetic analysis. Topics include Mendelian genetics, the genetics of human population and disease, genomics, and applications of genetics to human society.

Exclusion: BIO260H1, BIO207H5
Prerequisite: BIO150Y1
Co-requisite: BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1

Human Behavioural Biology        [24L, 12T]

This intermediate course in neuroscience focuses on higher brain functions and mechanisms underlying human and animal behaviours. Topics may include advanced neurophysiological, neuroanatomical and genetic basis of various cortical functions, including learning and memory, “mirroring”, and executive function. Experimental techniques used in neuroscience research such as electophysiological recordings, brain imaging and neurogenetics are emphasized.
Prerequisite: HMB200H1/HMB204H1/NRS201H1

Biotechnology [24L, 12T]

Students gain an appreciation for how science, business, government and society drive the development of biotechnology products. Topics include stem cells and regenerative medicine, diagnostics, cancer therapy, biotechnology in the developing world, antibiotic alternatives, and patents. Guest lecturers and student interviews of representatives from the biotechnology industry enhance real-world perspective.
Prerequisite: HMB201H1

Vertebrate Histology and Histopathology [24L, 36P]

Laboratory and lecture course studying the structure of the cell, various tissues and organ systems. Emphasis is on functional morphology and the adaptive response (including the inflammatory reaction) by comparing histological sections of normal tissues and organs with common diseases including neoplasia, respiratory, and liver disease.
Prerequisite: BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1

Global Health and Human Rights [24L, 15S]

A multidisciplinary emphasis on the economic, historical, social and cultural determinants of health and human rights, and how structural violence prevents progress towards human rights. Case studies reflecting global aspects of health and human rights form a framework for approaching these issues.
This is a SCIENCE or SOCIAL SCIENCE course.

Biomedical Visualization 1 [12L, 24T]

This course covers the analysis and development of visual media as it relates to the study of human biology. Lectures include: light/form; proportion/scale; conventions in human biology visualizations; media appropriate for target audience and reproduction. Topics may include: human anatomy and physiology, genetics, and issues in public health. Classes consist of lectures with computer lab explorations.

Exclusion: HSC302H5
Prerequisite: BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1

Personalized Modern Science [24L, 3P]

Learn about the people behind the last century of scientific discovery. Select scientists, chosen in part for the impact of their discovery on human biology, are used to illustrate the process of scientific research. Source material ranges from written biographies to interviews of Toronto scientists.
Prerequisite: BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1; BCH210H1; HMB265H1

Epistemological Ethics in Medicine [20L, 4S]

Decisions in medicine are affected by the practice of science. For example, experimental design, knowledge acquisition and claims, standards of proof, and regulatory processes can raise ethical issues in clinical practice. This is clearly evident in cases where the negative impact of a disease on health is high. This course focuses on these non-bioethical problems in biomedical science.
Prerequisite: BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1; HMB265H1/BIO260H1; HPS250H1/PHL275H1/PHL281H1
Co-requisite: PSL302Y1/(BIO270, 271)

Laboratory in Neuroscience [12L, 36P]

A laboratory course based on current research techniques for students in the Neuroscience Specialist and Major programs. Lab topics include human brain imaging and disorders; animal behaviour, electrophysiology and cell culture; and microarray analysis of neural development.

Exclusion: PSY399H1, NRS302H1, HMB311H1/HMB312H1/HMB314H1
Prerequisite: HMB200H1/HMB204H1

Laboratory in Genes Genetics & Biotechnology [12L, 36P]

A laboratory course based on current research techniques for students in the Genes Genetics & Biotechnology Specialist and Major programs. Lab topics include basic microbiology, molecular biology and animal cell culture techniques; nutrigenomics; and microarray analysis of altered gene expression.

Exclusion: HMB310H1/HMB312H1/HMB314H1
Prerequisite: HMB201H1

Laboratory in Health and Disease [12L, 36P]

A laboratory course based on current research techniques for students in the Health & Disease Specialist and Major programs. Lab topics include basic microbiology, molecular biology and animal cell culture techniques; immunocytochemistry, microarrays, and histological techniques.

Exclusion: HMB310H1/HMB311H1/HMB314H1
Prerequisite: HMB202H1

Laboratory in Human Biology [12L, 36P]

Students analyze whole body, cellular, and molecular responses to stressors. Techniques range from those standard in medical practice (e.g., blood pressure) to those used in cutting-edge research laboratories (e.g., microarrays). Students gain technical and analytical skills as they use these laboratory techniques to design and carry out individual and group experiments.

Exclusion: HMB310H1/HMB311H1/HMB312H1
Prerequisite: BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1, HMB265H1/BIO260H1
Pre- or co-requisite: PSL302Y1/(BIO270, 271)

Neuroanatomy [24L, 24P]

This is a rigorous, introductory course that presents the functional and comparative anatomy of the vertebrate brain. It is designed for students who intend to continue with studies in the Neurosciences and related areas.

Exclusion: NRS202H1
Prerequisite: HMB200H1/HMB204H1/PSL300H1/PSL302Y1/(BIO270, 271)

Topics in Genetics [24L, 12T]

The overall theme of this course is human genetics in disease. Topics include the molecular basis of human disease, using model organisms to identify disease-related genes, and genetic counseling. Expert guest lectures from clinical and basic sciences as well as small group work in tutorials build in-depth understanding.
Prerequisite: BIO260H1/HMB265H1

Human Disease in Our Society [24L, 12T]

Explore the scientific basis, interdisciplinary healthcare practices, and social implications of several diseases common in our society (e.g., STD, skin cancer, diabetes, and periodontal disease). Discuss current issues. Shadow a healthcare professional.
Prerequisite: BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1, HMB265H1/BIO260H1
Pre- or co-requisite: PSL302Y1/(BIO270, 271)

Global Health Research [24L, 6T]

Health is a responsibility shared worldwide. This globalization of health problems has impacted on biomedical research by refocusing attention to international initiatives. We explore current global health research advances. We also develop global health research skills. Both provide background preparation for global health research, particularly in international settings.
Prerequisite: 3rd-year status; HMB203H1

Statistics Applied to Human Biology [24L, 24T]

Find out how to use statistics in your research, and critically assess published data using statistical concepts. Unlike other statistics courses, the examples used in these lectures and small-group sessions are taken solely from human biology studies.

Exclusion: Any introductory statistics course
Prerequisite: First Year math or physics course; BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1; HMB265H1/BIO260H1

Epidemiology of Health & Disease [24L, 24T]

Engages students in the fundamental science of epidemiology applied to health and disease. After an introduction to various measures of health and disease, the scientific methods used to investigate, analyze, prevent and control population health problems are illustrated using biomedical and public health studies.

Exclusion: HMB442H1, UNI440H1
Prerequisite: HMB202H1/HMB203H1
Recommended Preparation: HMB325H1

Scientific Communication [4L, 20S]

Delve into topic(s) of human biology of your choice! Read science as it’s published. Listen to scientific talks. Be mentored by your own individual professor, a basic or clinical researcher. Assignments guide you to read, write, and speak effectively about science.
Prerequisite: BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1, HMB200H1/HMB201H1/HMB202H1/HMB203H1/HMB204H1/HMB265H1/HMB Major

Independent Experiential Study Project [TBA]

An Independent Experiential Study Project for students in Human biology. An instructional-supervised group project in an off-campus setting.
Prerequisite: 10 FCE and permission of the Human Biology Programs Office; enrolled in a Human Biology program.

Project in Neuroscience [TBA]

Laboratory research project on a neuroscience topic; supervised by a faculty member of the Faculty of Arts and Science or the Faculty of Medicine. Requires approval from the Human Biology Programs office from which application forms may be obtained.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; an approVED 300+ series science laboratory course and permission of the Human Biology Programs office.

Bench-to-bedside: translating lab research into clinical practice [18L, 6S]

The bridge between basic scientific research and clinical practice integrates fundamental knowledge about molecular/cellular mechanisms and clinical disorders to increase the potential for new medical treatments, therapies and interventions as well as understanding of disease processes. Case applications delivered by experts illustrate how promising laboratory discoveries transform medicine and medical science.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB302H1/HMB312H1/HMB314H1/HMB322H1

Biomedical Visualization 2 [12L, 24T]

This interdisciplinary course extends and applies the principles of HMB304H1 Biomedical Visualization 1 to enhance the translation of biomedical knowledge into visual communication. It encompasses medical illustration in health care, education, research and promotion. Nearby resources (e.g., Fisher Rare Book library) are instrumental for in-depth design projects that integrate art, science, and technology.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB304H1

Health Care Ethics [8L, 16S]

Healthcare ethics, central to quality care, encompasses the ethical issues of every patient contact as well as rare ethical problems. Ethical principles are presented in the context of specific clinical cases. Ethical judgment develops as students engage in discussion using common frameworks and arguments to resolve specific cases.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB306H1 or permission from the Human Biology Program office

Seminar in Human Behavioural Biology [12L, 12S]

This seminar course focuses on recent research into neurobiology underlying human behaviour. A variety of normal and abnormal human behaviours are studied (e.g., voluntary action, moral cognition, hedonism, aggression).
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB300H1/HMB310H1/HMB320H1

Seminar in Genes Genetics & Biotechnology [12L, 12S]

Theme based lecture and seminar course underlining current medical research in relation to the areas of genes, genetics and biotechnology. Topics vary yearly.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB301H1HMB311H1/HMB321H1

Seminar in Health and Disease [16L, 8S]

This course focuses on current medical research related to human disease. Faculty from the Department of Anaesthesia in the Faculty of Medicine present their own perioperative research. The potentially profound health effects of anaesthesia, pain management, and the control of the cardiorespiratory system essential for most surgery are also highlighted.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB302H1/HMB312H1/HMB322H1

Trends in Neuroscience [18L, 6S]

Current research covering the breadth of neuroscience is show cased by members of the Collaborative Program in Neuroscience. These topical reports cover the spectrum from molecular through genetic, cellular, developmental, systems, behavioural and modelling. As well, approaches to studying neurodegenerative diseases and clinical neurophysiology are introduced.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB300H1/HMB310H1/HMB320H1

Biotechnology: Interface between Science & Industry [16L, 8S]

Students use case studies facilitated by biotechnology experts to explore the integration of biological science with business. The focus is on vision and strategies of newly established ventures as well as existing companies that promote significant achievement in scientific discovery, commercial application, and public awareness.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB301H1

Topics in Histology and Histopathology [12L, 12S]

Lecture and seminar course emphasizing current research. Topics may include the digestive system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and neoplasia. Topics vary depending on class interest.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB302H1/HMB312H1/HMB322H1

Topics in Global Health [16L, 8S]

Seminar and theme based course examining the opportunity to apply basic knowledge of biological determinants of disease to designing health system interventions and informatics that can have a global impact in the near term.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB303H1/HMB323H1

Complementary and Alternative Medicine [20L, 4S]

Integrative health care is a phenomenon that is developing in health care systems in North America, China, India, and Vietnam, among others. It involves the coordination of multi-disciplinary and culturally-specific health services in the treatment of illness and disease, and an expanded concept of health, illness, and wellness.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB302H1/HMB303H1/HMB312H1/HMB322H1/HMB323H1

Selected Topics in Molecular Cell Biology [16L, 8S]

Theme based lecture and seminar course underlining current basic science research in molecular and cell biology related to human disease. Expert lecturers describe the physiological, cellular and molecular aspects of a variety of cell migration systems with emphasis on the underlying biological mechanisms. Student presentations utilize primary scientific literature.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; CSB349H1/PSL350H1/BCH311H1

Human Fungal Interaction [16L, 8S, 6P]

Lecture, seminar, and field course that studies the interactions between humans and fungi. Topics focus on fungal genetics and evolution, and the effects of fungi on human physiology. In addition, the commercialization and biotechnology of fungi are explored.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; CSB349H1/PSL350H1/BCH311H1, PSL302Y1/(BIO270H1, BIO271H1)/BIO252Y1

Dementia [18L, 6S, 4P]

In patients with dementia, intellectual, social and occupational functioning deteriorate. We explore in depth the multi-disciplinary aspects of dementia (clinical, genetic, molecular, social) with a focus on the most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease. A short service-learning opportunity is integrated.
Prerequisite: 4th -year status; HMB300H1/HMB302H1/HMB310H1/HMB312H1/HMB320H1/HMB322H1

Genetics of Human Disease [24L]

Most diseases have a genetic component. Toronto researchers present current insight into the genetics of specific human diseases: single gene (e.g., cystic fibrosis), chromosome (e.g, Down syndrome) and multifactorial inheritance (e.g., heart disease) disorders.
Prerequisite: 4th-year status; HMB265H1/BIO260H1; HMB301H1/HMB302H1/HMB311H1/HMB312H1/HMB314H1/HMB321H1/HMB322H1

Global Hidden Hunger [18L, 6S]

Vitamin and mineral deficiencies, termed ‘hidden hunger’, affect about half the world’s population. We explore the global nature, catastrophic consequences, and causes of these deficiencies. We also discuss formulation and implementation of international, national, and local policies to alleviate ‘hidden hunger’ especially in infants and young children.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB303H1/HMB323H1 or NFS382H1

Human Biology and Human Destiny:        Science, Popular Science, and Science Fiction [24S]

Seminars explore the interactions of biological sciences, social issues, and literature. Through reading of classic “SF” novels and popular writings by prominent twentieth century biologists in their historical, scientific, and thematic contexts, we examine how biological concepts and their development affected life, society, and the future of humanity.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; BIO250Y1/(BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/BIO255Y1; HMB 300-level course

AIDS: A Global Perspective [6L, 18S]

Seminars explore the global AIDS crisis, adopting the medical-anthropological perspective of Paul Farmer’s “Infections and Inequalities”. Varying epidemiological profiles of AIDS are placed in broader social, cultural, and political-economic frameworks. The impact of globalization and structural inequality on local cultures and lifestyles provides an essential backdrop to the discussions.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB300H1/HMB301H1/HMB302H1/HMB303H1 or 0.5 FCE 300-series ANT course
This is a SCIENCE or SOCIAL SCIENCE course.

Current Issues in Environment & Health [16L, 8S]

This course introduces students to complex issues at the interface between environment and health where health is broadly defined. Each year a current and controversial case study is explored from scientific, medical, political and policy perspectives. The course takes students from the molecular to individual to population and societal levels.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; ENV341H1/HMB302H1/HMB312H1/HMB322H1

Exercise and Sports Medicine [20L, 4S]

This course introduces biomechanics and builds on knowledge of the biomechanics of injury and dysfunction to develop a systematic understanding of risk, injury prevention, and initial management of injuries in sports and physical activities. Some additional topics include “doping” in sport, travel issues in competitive sport, and ethical issues in clinical sport medicine.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB300H1/HMB301H1/HMB302H1/HMB303H1/PSL302Y1/(BIO270, 271)

Performance Enhancement [20L, 4S]

This course presents the links between stress and performance. Current research provides the theoretical and scientific bases for this mind-body link. Various stress management skills are introduced to maintain focus in the face of distractions such as writing an examination, making a public presentation or being interviewed for a job
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB300H1/HMB301H1/HMB302H1/HMB303H1

Exercise Physiology [20L, 4S]

Examine the physiological and biochemical responses of the human body to both acute and chronic bouts of physical activity. The impact of activity on health, and health on physical activity, is explored by examining adaptations from the cellular to the systemic level of bodily function.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; PSL302Y1/BIO252Y1/(BIO270H1, BIO271H1)

Exercise and Mental Health [18L, 6S, 10P]

Mental well being is a critical element of total health. We explore the evidence underpinning the role of physical activity in the avoidance of mental disorders, recovery from mental disorders, and the quality of life of those with or without mental disorders. A service learning component in local organizations enriches learning.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; PSL302Y1/BIO252Y1/(BIO270H1, BIO271H1), PSY100H1,

Advanced Laboratory in Human Biology [72P]

Building on their experience in 3rd-year labs, students participate in inquiry-based laboratory experiments in diverse areas of current human biology research. Open to students in any Human Biology program.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB310H1/HMB311H1/HMB312H1/HMB314H1

Research Project in Global Health [TBA]

A research project on issues of global health is supervised by a faculty member of the Faculty of Arts and Science or the Faculty of Medicine. Requires approval from the Human Biology Programs office from which application forms may be obtained.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; HMB203H1/HMB303H1/HMB323H1 and permission of the Human Biology Programs office.
This is a SCIENCE or SOCIAL SCIENCE course.

Research Project in Human Biology [TBA]

A research project is supervised by a faculty member of the Faculty of Arts and Science or the Faculty of Medicine. Requires approval from the Human Biology Programs office from which application forms may be obtained.
Prerequisite: 4th year status; An approVED 300+ series science laboratory course and permission of the Human Biology Programs office.