|Faculty of Arts & Science
Professor and Chair of the Department
R. Pysklywec, M Sc, Ph D
Professor and Chair of the Department (Interim)
G.S. Henderson, M Sc, Ph D
Associate Professor and Associate Chair (Graduate Studies)
R. Ghent, M Sc, Ph D
Associate Professor and Associate Chair (Undergraduate)
U. G. Wortmann, Dipl. Geol., Dr. rer. nat.
B. Sherwood-Lollar, BA, Ph D, FRSC
J. R. Desloges, M Sc, Ph D
M. L. Diamond, M Sc, M Sc Eng, Ph D
F.G. Ferris, B Sc, Ph D, FRSC
A.D. Miall, B Sc, Ph D, D Sc, FRSC
B. Milkereit, M.Sc., Ph.D.
N. Eyles, M.Sc., Ph. D. (U of T Scarborough)
K.W.F. Howard, M Sc, Ph D (U of T Scarborough)
B.A. Bergquist, B Sc, Ph D
J. Bollmann, Dip Geol, Ph D
S. A. Cowling, M Sc, Ph D
D. Davis, M Sc, Ph D
S. Finkelstein, M Phil, Ph D
R. Ghent, M Sc, Ph D
Qinya Liu M.Sc., Ph.D.
M.A. Hamilton, M Sc, Ph D
J.E. Mungall, M Sc, Ph D
U. Wortmann, Dipl. Geol., Dr. Rer. Nat.
M. Dittrich, Ph.D., (U of T Scarborough)
J. Halfar, Dip Geol, Ph D (U of T Mississauga)
D.J. Schulze, M Sc, Ph D (U of T Mississauga)
L. Schoehnbohm, B Sc, Ph D (U of T Mississauga)
M. Wells, Ph.D., (U of T Scarborough)
Z. Zajacz, Ph D
M. Laflamme, Ph D (U of T Mississauga)
C.-G. Bank, Dip Geophys, M Sc, Ph D
University Professor Emeritus
A.J. Naldrett, MA, M Sc, Ph D, FRSC
G.M. Anderson, B Eng, MA Sc, Ph D
R. C. Bailey, B.Sc., Ph.D.
J.J. Fawcett, B Sc, Ph D
J. Gittins, M Sc, Ph D, Sc D (U)
D.H. Gorman, B Sc, Ph D
H.C. Halls, M Sc, PhD (U of T Mississauga)
G. Norris, MA, Ph D, FRSC (U)
J.C. Rucklidge, MA, Ph D
W.M. Schwerdtner, Dip Geol, Dr Rer Nat
S.D. Scott, Ph D, FRSC
E. T. C. Spooner, MA, Ph D (U)
J.C. Van Loon, B Sc, Ph D
P.H. von Bitter, MA, Ph D
P-Y. F. Robin, M Sc, Ph D (U of T Mississauga)
J.A. Westgate, B Sc, Ph D (S)
Status Only Faculty
K. Tait, M.Sc., Ph.D., ROM
J. B. Caron, M.Sc., Ph.D., ROM
M. Head, M.Sc., Ph.D., Brock University
Do you like sciences but have a hard time choosing which one to pursue? Can you picture yourself performing experiments in the lab, or collecting data in the field, or developing and testing models on a computer? Then Earth Sciences is the discipline for you. It is the study of physical, chemical, and biological processes over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales in earth and planetary systems.
Our department offers various programs:
The three specialist programs – Geology, Environmental Geoscience, and Geophysics (offered in collaboration with the Department of Physics) – give students the skills to enter graduate studies and also allows them to become professional “geoscientists in training” after graduation. The Geology specialist program focuses on processes of the solid planetary bodies, including volcanoes, sedimentary environments, mountain building, the formation of minerals or ores, and Earth through time. The Environmental Geosciences specialist program in addition addresses processes related to groundwater and biochemical activities. The Geophysics specialist program allows students to model physical processes in and on Earth and other planets and to apply non-invasive methods of imaging the subsurface, often in 4D (i.e., space and time); targets may range from archaeological investigations to groundwater imaging and mineral exploration, but also include modeling of mountain-building processes and planetary magnetic fields.
The Geoscience Major program builds on a set of core courses and allows students to select elective courses that match their particular interests. Students have paired this program not just with other science programs but such diverse fields as geography, archaeology, economics, history, political science, or peace and conflict studies.
The Geoscience Minor program provides an introduction to Earth science topics and thinking.
The new major called “Earth and Environmental Systems” takes a holistic approach to understanding how the Earth system works and how it has evolved over tens to millions and billions of years. This requires understanding the dynamics and interactions of all aspects of the system (solid Earth, ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere) and provides the larger context at a time when climate change, resource consumption and global pollution weigh heavily on people and societies.
Our programs emphasise hands-on lab and field work. At least one field course is required in each program, and several courses have offered optional one-day to two-week long trips. In recent years courses have travelled to Newfoundland, Texas, Arizona, Hawaii, Chile, and New Zealand, and small groups of undergraduates have been involved with field research in Turkey, Peru, Greece and South Africa. These field training opportunities foster the establishment of peer networks, develop team-working skills, afford hands-on learning, and allow for a close collaboration and mentoring experience between individual students and instructors. Students are also encouraged to take advantage of extra and co-curricular opportunities such as study abroad, summer abroad, internships, or working in industry and non-governmental organizations.
More information (including an undergraduate handbook) can be found on the department website www.es.utoronto.ca. Students are encouraged to discuss their plans for program and course selection with the Undergraduate Associate Chair (email@example.com).
The introductory 100-level course JEG100H1 is strongly recommended for enrolment in all programs in the Department of Earth Sciences.Geology Specialist (Science program)
Please consult the undegraduate handbook for detailed information on this program.
(14 full courses or their equivalent)
5.0 FCE foundation courses:
CHM151Y1 / CHM135H1, CHM136H1 (CHM138H1, CHM139H1); MAT135H1 & MAT136H1; (PHY131H1, PHY132H1)/(PHY151H1, PHY152H1); BIO120H1 / MAT221H1 / MAT223H1; STA220H1 / GGR270H1; GGR201H1; CSC108H1 / ESS345H1; recommended: ESS102H1 or JEG100H1
6.0 FCE core courses:
ENV233H1, ESS221H1, ESS222H1, ESS241H1, ESS261H1, JGA305H1, ESS311H1, ESS312H1, ESS322H1, ESS331H1, ESS441H1, ESS431H1 (previously ESS332)
1.0 FCE field courses:
2.0 FCE electives chosen from:
ENV234H1, ESS381H1, ESS410H1, ESS423H1, ESS425H1, ESS445H1, ESS461H1, ESS481H1, ESS420H1 / ESS490H1, ESS491H1 / ESS492Y1, ESS362H1
Jointly sponsored by the School for the Environment and the Department of Earth Sciences. Topics include earth materials, sedimentary geology, aqueous geochemistry, hydrogeology and biogeochemistry. For more information, please contact the Department of Earth Sciences, firstname.lastname@example.org. Students should note that under the Professional Geoscientists Act of 2000, individuals practicing Environmental Geoscience in Ontario require education that fulfills APGO knowledge requirements or a P.Eng.
(14 full courses or their equivalent which includes fulfillment of the Faculty’s Distribution requirement ; must include at least four 300+-series courses, one of which must be at the 400-level)
Environmental Geosciences Specialist
First Year: CHM151Y1/CHM135H1, CHM136H1 (CHM138H1, CHM139H1); (MAT135H1, MAT136H1) / MAT137Y1; PHY131H1, PHY132H1
First or Second Year: BIO120H1
Second to Fourth Years:
ENV233H1, ESS221H1, ESS222H1, ESS241H1; GGR201H1; ENV234H1/ESS261H1/EEB214H1; CHM210H1; MAT235Y1/(MAT221H1/MAT223H1, ESS345H1); STA220H1/GGR270H1; ESS311H1, ESS312H1, ESS331H1; ESS425H1/ENV315H1; ESS461H1, ESS410H1
2.0 FCE from: JGA305H1, ESS381H1, ESS450H1, ESS441H1, ESS445H1, ESS481H1, ESS491H1 / ESS492Y1
Consult Departments of Geology and Physics
(13.5 to 14 full courses or their equivalent with at least one course at the 400-level)
9.0 FCEs core courses:
100-level: PHY131H1/PHY151H1, PHY132H1/PHY152H1; (MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/MAT137Y1
200-level: PHY250H1, PHY254H1; MAT235Y1/MAT237Y1; ESS221H1, ESS241H1
300-level: PHY395H1; JGA305H1
400-level: PHY408H1, PHY493H1, PHY494H1; ESS441H1, ESS445H1, ESS450H1
0.5 to 1.0 FCEs ethics course chosen from the following list: JPH441H1, ENV333H1, IMC200H1, PHL273H1, PHL275H1, ABS201Y1
4.0 to 4.5 additional FCEs chosen from Groups A, B, and/or C:
Group A -- courses required and relevant for professional registration (APGO):
CHM139H1; ESS345H1/CSC108H1; STA220H1/GGR270H1; MAT223H1, MAT244H1; APM346H1; ESS331H1
Group B -- emphasis on physics (suitable for graduate school preparation in a physics program):
PHY252H1, PHY350H1, PHY354H1, PHY392H1, PHY454H1, PHY495H1
Group C -- other relevant courses:
PHY224H1, MAT224H1, MAT335H1, APM346H1, ESS211H1, ESS222H1, ESS311H1, ESS312H1, ESS431H1, ESS330H1, ESS410H1, ESS490H1, ESS491H1, ESS492H1
(8 full courses or their equivalent including at least 2.0 FCE at 300+ series with at least 0.5 FCE at 400 level series.)
2.0 to 2.5 FCE chosen from BIO120H1; CHM135H1, CHM136H1 (CHM138H1, CHM139H1); MAT135H1, MAT136H1, MAT137Y1; PHY131H1, PHY132H1; JEG100H1 (ESS102H1); ENV234H1
2.5 FCE core courses: ESS221H1, ESS222H1, ESS241H1, ESS261H1, ESS331H1
0.5 FCE field course: ESS330H1/ESS410H1/ESS450H1
2.5 to 3.0 FCE chosen from 300/400 level ESS courses/JGA305H1; note course progressions and prerequisites.
We suggest students consider the following logical course clusters in their higher years:
(a) Earth/planetary materials and mineral resources: ENV233H1, ESS322H1, ESS431H1 (ESS332H1), ESS423H1
(b) tectonics: JGA305H1, ESS345H1, ESS441H1, ESS445H1
(c) environmental biogeochemistry: ENV233H1,ESS311H1, ESS312H1, ESS410H1, ESS461H1
(d) geoarchaeology: JGA305H1, ESS461H1
(4 full courses or their equivalent, with at least 1.0 FCE at 300+ series.)
1. 1.0 FCE of 100-series CHM, BIO, or PHY courses.
2. 1.0 FCE of 100-level ESS courses (JEG100H1/ESS102H1 recommended).
3. 1.0 FCE of 200-level ESS courses, including ENV234H1.
4. 1.0 FCE of 300/400 level ESS courses, including JGA305H1.
Be aware of course prerequisites, check clusters of courses listed for the geoscience major program, and consult the geology undergraduate handbook for logical course progressions.Environmental Geosciences Minor (Science Program)
Admission to the Environmental Geosciences Minor has been administratively suspended as of 1 April 2015 and is no longer admitting students. Students presently enrolled in the minor will be able to complete the program requirements as described below.
(4 full courses or their equivalent; must include at least one full-course equivalent at the 300+-level)
1. CHM136H1 (CHM138H1)
2. ENV233H1; ESS221H1, ESS222H1, ESS311H1, ESS312H1, ESS410H1
The 199Y1 and 199H1 seminars are designed to provide the opportunity to work closely with an instructor in a class of no more than twenty-four students. These interactive seminars are intended to stimulate the students’ curiosity and provide an opportunity to get to know a member of the professorial staff in a seminar environment during the first year of study. Details can be found at www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/course/fyh-1/.
This introduction to Physical Geography and Earth Sciences examines the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere, emphasizing processes, flows of energy and materials, and the interconnectedness of these Earth systems. Specific topics include weather and climate, earth materials, geological and geomorphic processes involved in the genesis of landforms, river systems, glaciers, soils, and biomes. Five laboratory meetings during the term.Exclusion: GGR100H1 and ESS102H1
Geologic hazards: earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, tsunamis. The distribution and politics of natural resources, including petroleum and ore deposits. Nuclear power and nuclear waste disposal. Global change: the geologic record of hot and cold climates, and how the earth survives. ESS103H1 is primarily intended as a science Distribution Requirement course for Humanities and Social Science, it will be taught in odd years.Exclusion: GLG103H1, ERS103H5
The evolution of ideas about the origin and development of the earth from the Athenians to the 20th Century, with attention on the age of earth; on the evolution and disappearance of species; on the origin of oceans, continents and mountains; on climate change; and on the courage of scientists in confronting the religious and political views of their time. ESS104H1 is primarily intended as a science Distribution Requirement course for Humanities and Social Science students. Taught in even years.Exclusion: GLG105H1
The nature and evolution of the Earth; plate tectonics; rocks and minerals; volcanism; geological time; fossils; geology of Ontario; environmental issues; and human interactions with the planet. ESS105H1 is primarily intended as a science Distribution Requirement course for Humanities and Social Science studentsExclusion: GLG110H1, EESA06H3
The emergence of society as a major geological force is considered in terms of the evolving debate about the consequences of human activity for the habitability of our planet. Major issues such as climate change, environmental pollution, and depletion of natural resources are examined.Exclusion: GLG205H1, ERS321H5
Systematic mineralogy (including: identification, classification and description), Physical and chemical properties of minerals. Crystallography and crystal systems (symmetry, crystal structure, crystal systems) Descriptions of rocks in hand samples. Optical techniques in mineral identification.Exclusion: GLG206H1, ERS201H5, EESB19H3
Origin and classification of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks and their associated ore deposits. Emphasis is placed on formation of rock types in the context of plate tectonic theory, and the practical aspects of rock identification in hand sample and thin section.Prerequisite: ESS221H1, ERS203H5, EESC36H3
This course will examine how the chemistry of the Earth system has changed through geologic time including recent perturbations by humans. Within this context students will be exposed to the scientific principles of thermodynamics, redox, and acid-base chemistry. This course will build on the topics introduced in ENV234H1.Prerequisite: 0.5 FCE from CHM135H1/CHM138H1/CHM136H1/CHM139H1 (recommended)/CHM151Y1; 0.5 FCE from MAT135H1/MAT137Y1/MAT157Y1/JMB170Y1
This multidisciplinary course draws on elements from geology, soil science, and ecology to understand past and present environments and human impacts on landscapes and ecosystems. Emphasis on the structure, functioning and connectivity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Field trips and labs. Mandatory day-long field trip on a Friday or Saturday (students choose which day; a small fee may be charged for transportation). (Lab Materials Fee: $25)Prerequisite: BIO120H1 (highly recommended) or ESS102H1/GLG102H1/GGR100H1/JEG100H1/FOR200H1/FOR201H1
Field observations, description and classification of geological structures: stratigraphic and intrusive contacts, unconformities; relative age determination; folds and fold systems; faults and fault systems; boudinage, foliations and lineations; spherical projections and mechanical principles (stress, strain, rheology). Practical work focuses on reading geological maps, constructing cross-sections, and interpreting both in terms of geological processes and histories.Exclusion: GLG345H1, EESC37H3
Interrelationships between Earths atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere through time; including patterns of evolution and extinction as they are related to changes at the earth's surface and recorded in the rock record. Laboratories cover major groups of fossils, their classification, use in biostratigraphy, and living analogues. NOTE: ESS261H1 and ESS262H1 may be taken in either order; and both are required for advanced courses.Exclusion: GLG217H1
Processes acting within the Earth system, with particular emphasis on interactions between its components (hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere and solid Earth) at long and short timescales. Lecture topics include pre-biotic and post-biotic atmosphere, thermohaline circulation of the oceans, plate tectonics, the rock cycle, regulation of paleoclimates, the global carbon cycle and the terrestrial and marine biosphere.Recommended Preparation: PHY131H1/CHM138H1/BIO120H1
Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. Details at http://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/course/rop. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.Distribution Requirement Status: Science
Application of near-surface geophysical methods to investigate environmental and archaeological sites; in particular magnetometry, resistivity, ground-probing radar, and seismic surveys. Course will cover background on the various methods, and allow students to run field surveys and present on case studies.Prerequisite: ESS241H1 or ANT200Y1 or GGR201H1
An introduction to aqueous environmental geochemistry emphasising the importance of chemical equilibria, mass transport, and microbiological activity in regulating the chemical composition of natural and contaminated systems.Prerequisite: ESS211H1 / ENV233H1
Groundwater flow, the role of groundwater in geologic processes, and physical, chemical and biological constraints on contaminant source transport and attenuation.Prerequisite: ESS311H1
An overview of the nature and origin of igneous as well as metamorphic rocks, with particular emphasis on the interpretation of textures and mineral assemblages as they reflect rock-forming processes. Laboratory exercises familiarise students with the most common rock types, and provide practical examples of the theoretical principles discussed in lectures. This course also has a mandatory weekend field trip to view igneous and metamorphic rocks and structures in the Bancroft or Montreal area.Prerequisite: ESS222H1 & ESS211H1/ENV233H1
A two-week field course in early May or late August. Students are introduced to field geology and to basic field measurement, mapping and documentation techniques (for example in the Espanola - Manitoulin Island area, west of Sudbury). Students are responsible for the cost of board and lodging and transport to and from the field area. Not eligible for CR/NCR option. Note: Enrollment is handled by the department. For registration deadlines, additional fees associated with the field course, course dates, and special registration requirements, please consult the departmental announcements or inquire with email@example.com.Prerequisite: ESS222H1 & ESS241H1
Formal principles of stratigraphy, types of stratigraphic unit, methods of dating and correlation (biostratigraphic methods, magnetostratigraphy, radiometric dating). Methods of study in surface and subsurface (outcrop measurement, elementary introduction to wireline logs, seismic methods). The principles of facies analysis; sediment transport - sedimentary structures, the flow regime, and sediment gravity flows. The carbonate factory and carbonate rock classification. Trace fossils. Laboratory exercises in understanding facies mapping, isopachs and isolith maps.Prerequisite: ESS221H1
The impact of 7 billion people on the planet is enormous and challenges future generations. What are these impacts today and in future? What solutions and tools can avert societal collapse? Using an integrated and interdisciplinary systems approach, we explore problems and solutions to the earth’s limits to growth.Prerequisite: (two of ENV233H1, ENV234H1, ENV237H1/ENV238H1) or (GGR201H1 + GGR203H1) or (ENV233H1 + ESS261H1) or (CHM210H1 + CHM217H1) or (ENV221H1/ENV222H1/ENV234H1 + BIO220H1 + BIO230H1/BIO255H1) or permission of Academic Associate Director
High-level computer programming to manipulate, analyse, and visualise geologic datasets, and to solve geologic problems that require mathematical and physical concepts. Students work in Matlab, write reports, give oral presentations, and work in teams.Prerequisite: ESS241H1/ESS261H1/ESS262H1
Theory on the exchange of energy and matter (carbon, water) between the land surface and atmosphere, with a focus on the implications of ecosystem-level processes for regional micrometeorology. Examples will be taken from research on contemporary as well as palaeoclimate systems. Case studies to include how changes in vegetation type alter surface radiation balance, hydrological cycling and heat transfer in soils. There is no formal textbook for this course. Lecture material will be augmented with assigned readings from the scientific literature.Prerequisite: 8.0 FCE`s, including 1.5 FCE from PHY131H1/PHY132H1/CHM138H1/CHM139H1/MAT135H1/MAT136H1
An introduction to the physical, geological, chemical, and biological processes governing the world’s oceans. The course emphasizes critical thinking, environmental issues, and interrelationships among scientific disciplines.Prerequisite: 8.0 FCE including ESS261H1/ESS262H1
A survey of current thinking in Earth science. Topics may include isotope geochemistry, ore genesis, or planetary remote sensing.Prerequisite: minimum of 1.0 credits in ESS at the 200+level
An individual study program chosen by the student with the advice, and under the supervision, of a faculty member. Such work may involve obtaining data in the field or lab and analysing it, an interdisciplinary research project, and supervised readings. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.Prerequisite: enrollment in an Earth Science program of study, completion of at least one full-course equivalent of 200-series ESS courses.
An individual study program chosen by the student with the advice, and under the supervision, of a faculty member. Such work may involve obtaining data in the field or lab and anlysing it, an interdisciplinary research project, and supervised readings. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.Prerequisite: enrollment in an Earth Sciences Program of Study; completion of at least one full-course equivalent of 200-series ESS courses.
Designed for students interested in the physics of the Earth and the planets. Study of the Earth as a unified dynamic system; determination of major internal divisions in the planet; development and evolution of the Earth's large scale surface features through plate tectonics; the age and thermal history of the planet; Earth's gravitational field and the concept of isostasy; mantle rheology and convection; Earth tides; geodetic measurement techniques, in particular modern space-based techniques.Prerequisite: PHY132H1/PHY152H1/PHY180H1/MIE100H1, MAT235Y1/MAT237Y1/MAT291H1/AER210H1, PHY254H1/PHY293H1/MAT244H1/MAT290H1/MAT292H1
An instructor-supervised group project in an off-campus setting. Details at http://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/course/399. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.Distribution Requirement Status: Science
An instructor-supervised group project in an off-campus setting. Details at http://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/course/399. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.Exclusion: GLG399Y0
A ten-day field course in late summer at the Deep River field site designed to familiarize students in a variety of hydrogeological and biogeochemical field techniques; includes a mixture of lecture, laboratory and field exercises. Not eligible for CR/NCR option. Note: Enrollment is handled by the department. For registration deadlines, additional fees associated with the field course, course dates, and special registration requirements, please consult the departmental announcements or inquire with firstname.lastname@example.org.Prerequisite: ESS311H1, ESS312H1
A two-week advanced geological mapping project in a challenging field environment. Students learn to compile existing geoscience data, create a geological map and prepare a professional final report on their activities and findings. Not eligible for CR/NCR option. For registration deadlines, additional fees associated with the field course, course dates, and special registration requirements, please consult the departmental announcements or inquire with email@example.com.Prerequisite: ESS322H1 & ESS330H1
Geology and geochemistry of ore deposits. Origin and interpretation; systematic ore mineralogy, in hand specimen and reflected light microscopy.Prerequisite: ESS322H1
Theory and hands-on learning of current analytical techniques (laboratory work is worth 50% of the final grade). In each lab, groups of two students receive instruction from an experienced analyst and acquire hands-on experience using state-of-the-art analytical equipment. Where possible, samples supplied by the students are analyzed. Techniques covered include Neutron Activation, X-ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Gas Chromatography, Ion Chromatography, Atomic Absorption, Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.Prerequisite: ESS322H1
Detailed study of each of the major sedimentary environments. Typical facies assemblages, cyclic sedimentation. Autogenic and allogenic processes. The principles of sequence stratigraphy. The history of the sequence concept; systems tracts and bounding surfaces. Sequence models. What causes sequences: mechanisms of change in base level and accommodation: – tectonism, climate change, eustatic sea-level change.Prerequisite: ESS331H1
Principles of geological mechanics: stress, strain, rheology. Faulting, folding and development of tectonic foliations and lineations. Structural analysis of fractures, folds and tectonites.Prerequisite: ESS241H1 and 1.0 FCE of 300-level ESS/PHY courses, including JGA205H1
Exploration of physical Earth processes and their relationship to large-scale geological phenomena. Mantle convection as plate tectonic engine; intraplate/plate boundary lithospheric deformation including orogenesis and crustal subsidence. Focus on reconciling geodynamic theory/modelling with geological/geophysical observations.Prerequisite: ESS441H1
A ten-day field course in late August at the Deep River field site. Students get hands-on experience using geophysical instrumentation, applying various data collection techniques, and performing data analysis in gravity, magnetic, seismic, electrical, electromagnetic, and radar surveys. Not eligible for CR/NCR option. Note: Enrollment is handled by the department. For registration deadlines, additional fees associated with the field course, course dates, and special registration requirements, please consult the departmental announcements or inquire with firstname.lastname@example.org.Exclusion: GLG330H1
Current geophysical surface and borehole methodologies (gravity, magnetics, electrical, electromagnetic, nuclear) and their theoretical basis for investigating Earth's interior to depths ranging from several metres to tens of kilometers.Prerequisite: PHY395H1, APM346H1
The use of proxy data (terrestial and aquatic microfossils) to infer past environmental conditions. The nature and extent of Quaternary environmental change is considered in the context of assessing current issues such as acidification, metal pollution, eutrophication and global climate change. Paleoenvironmental techniques are applied in the laboratory.Prerequisite: ESS261H1
A seminar course focusing on the exchange of matter (i.e. elements, minerals) between the Earth’s atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere. Course-related topics include global biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, silicon, iron, and zinc (amongst other elements) and will include both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Examples and case studies will be viewed from the paleo-, contemporary and potential future global change perspectives. The overall content of course readings will be determined by student interest, as students have the freedom to choose topics (readings) of personal interest. Offered in alternate years.Prerequisite: 10 FCEs from any of ESS/MAT/PHY/CHM/EEB/GGR, including ESS361H1/ESS362H1/GGR305H1
Disturbances to the Earth system by anthropogenic contaminant input and how to improve environmental quality. Case studies include mining contamination and remediation, and movement of contaminants in air, water, soils, and sediments, particularly in urban areas.Prerequisite: ESS261H1, ESS262H1, ESS361H1/ESS362H1
A seminar course focussing on ways that the Earth's biosphere (terrestrial and marine) has altered the overall functioning of the Earth System over geological time, including (1) influence of terrestrial vegetation on surface processes such as palaeosol development, river geomorphology, erosion, and cycling of major biogeochemical nutrients on land, (2) influence of the marine biosphere on the concentration of O2 and CO2 in the atmosphere, including the origin of the stratospheric ozone layer, and (3) the interactive influence of the terrestrial and marine biosphere on atmospheric moisture transport, production of latent relative to sensible heat fluxes, and the development of the planetary boundary layer. Offered in alternate years.Prerequisite: ESS261H1/ESS262H1, ESS361H1/ESS362H1/GGR305H1
An in-depth study of a modern earth science question, for example mineralogy and material science, advanced petrology, or exploration geochemistry.Prerequisite: appropriate 300-level ESS credits. Prerequisites change from year to year; consult Department for details.
A two-week excursion to a challenging field setting. Students will integrate field observations with their accumulated knowledge of geodynamics, structural geology, and landscape evolution to understand large-scale geological events. Not eligible for CR/NCR option. Note: Enrollment is handled by the department. For registration deadlines, additional fees associated with the field course, course dates, and special registration requirements, please consult the departmental announcements or inquire with email@example.com.Prerequisite: ESS241H1, ESS221H1, ESS330H1/ESS420H1/ESS450H1
Research emphasising methods used in field and experimental work. Students must obtain the consent of an instructor and register with the undergraduate coordinator and are urged to do so toward the end of their third year. In addition to submitting a thesis, students are required to give an oral presentation of their research results to an open meeting of the department. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.Prerequisite: Completion of the required 300-level courses, and enrollment in a relevant program and permission of the department.
Research emphasising methods used in field and experimental work. Students must obtain the consent of an instructor and register with the undergraduate coordinator and are urged to do so toward the end of their third year. In addition to submitting a thesis, students are required to give an oral presentation of their research results to an open meeting of the department. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.Prerequisite: Completion of the required 300-level courses in an appropriate program and permission of the department.
Why do earthquakes occur and how are they related to tectonic motion of the Earth's surface? What is the physics behind the propagation of seismic waves through the Earth, and how can it be used to determine the internal structures of the Earth? This introductory course is aimed at understanding the physics behind seismic wave propagation, as well as asymptotic and numerical solutions to the elastodynamic equation. Travel time and amplitude of seismic waves are discussed based on seismic ray theory, while numerical methods are introduced to obtain accurate solutions to more complex velocity structures. Seismic tomographic methods, including their applications to hydrocarbon reservoir imaging, are also covered.Prerequisite: JPE395H1, APM346H1/APM351Y1