MAT Mathematics Courses
Undergraduate seminar that focuses on specific ideas, questions, phenomena or controversies, taught by a regular Faculty member deeply engaged in the discipline. Open only to newly admitted first year students. It may serve as a breadth requirement course; see page 40.
A study of games, puzzles and problems focusing on the deeper principles they illustrate. Concentration is on problems arising out of number theory and geometry, with emphasis on the process of mathematical reasoning. Technical requirements are kept to a minimum. A foundation is provided for a continuing lay interest in mathematics. (Offered every three years)
An in-depth study of the life, times and work of several mathematicians who have been particularly influential. Examples may include Newton, Euler, Gauss, Kowalewski, Hilbert, Hardy, Ramanujan, Gödel, Erdös, Coxeter, Grothendieck. (Offered every three years)
See below MAT133Y1
See below MAT135Y1
Algebra for Commerce
for Commerce (B)
Review of trigonometric functions; trigonometric identities and trigonometric limits. Review of differential calculus; applications. Integration and fundamental theorem; applications. Series. Introduction to differential equations.
First term of MAT135Y1. Students in academic difficulty in MAT135Y1 who have written two midterm examinations with a mark of at least 20% in the second may withdraw from MAT135Y1 and enrol in MAT125H1 in the Spring Term. These students are informed of this option by the beginning of the Spring Term. Classes begin in the second week of the Spring Term; late enrolment is not permitted. Students not enrolled in MAT135Y1 in the Fall Term will not be allowed to enrol in MAT125H1. MAT125H1 together with MAT126H1 is equivalent for program and prerequisite purposes to MAT135Y1.
Second Term content of MAT135Y1; the final examination includes topics covered in MAT125H1. Offered in the Summer Session only; students not enrolled in MAT125H1 in the preceding Spring Term will NOT be allowed to enrol in MAT126H1. MAT125H1 together with MAT126H1 is equivalent for program and prerequisite purposes to MAT135Y1.
Limited to out-of-province students interested in the biological, physical, or computer sciences, whose high school mathematics preparation is strong but does not include calculus. Develops the concepts of calculus at least at the level of MAT135Y1. May include background material on functions, analytic geometry, and trigonometry, as well as on calculus. Note that this course counts as full-course credit, although it involves double the number of lecture and tutorial hours as MAT135Y1.
A conceptual approach for students with a serious interest in mathematics. Geometric and physical intuition are emphasized but some attention is also given to the theoretical foundations of calculus. Material covers first a review of trigonometric functions followed by discussion of trigonometric identities. The basic concepts of calculus: limits and continuity, the mean value and inverse function theorems, the integral, the fundamental theorem, elementary transcendental functions, Taylor’s theorem, sequence and series, uniform convergence and power series.
A theoretical course in calculus; emphasizing proofs and techniques, as well as geometric and physical understanding. Trigonometric identities. Limits and continuity; least upper bounds, intermediate and extreme value theorems. Derivatives, mean value and inverse function theorems. Integrals; fundamental theorem; elementary transcendental functions. Taylor’s theorem; sequences and series; uniform convergence and power series.
Matrix arithmetic and linear systems. Rn: subspaces, linear independence, bases, dimension; column spaces, null spaces, rank and dimension formula. Orthogonality orthonormal sets, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process; least square approximation. Linear transformations Rn®Rm. The determinant, classical adjoint, Cramer’s Rule. Eigenvalues, eigenvectors, eigenspaces, diagonalization. Function spaces and application to a system of linear differential equations.
Abstract vector spaces: subspaces, dimension theory. Linear mappings: kernel, image, dimension theorem, isomorphisms, matrix of linear transformation. Changes of basis, invariant spaces, direct sums, cyclic subspaces, Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Inner product spaces, orthogonal transformations, orthogonal diagonalization, quadratic forms, positive definite matrices. Complex operators: Hermitian, unitary and normal. Spectral theorem. Isometries of R2 and R3.
Differential and integral calculus of functions of several variables. Line and surface integrals, the divergence theorem, Stokes’ theorem. Sequences and series, including an introduction to Fourier series. Some partial differential equations of Physics.
Sequences and series. Uniform convergence. Convergence of integrals. Elements of topology in R2 and R3. Differential and integral calculus of vector valued functions of a vector variable, with emphasis on vectors in two and three dimensional euclidean space. Extremal problems, Lagrange multipliers, line and surface integrals, vector analysis, Stokes’ theorem, Fourier series, calculus of variations.
A theoretical approach to: vector spaces over arbitrary fields including C,Zp. Subspaces, bases and dimension. Linear transformations, matrices, change of basis, similarity, determinants. Polynomials over a field (including unique factorization, resultants). Eigenvalues, eigenvectors, characteristic polynomial, diagonalization. Minimal polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton theorem.
Designed to introduce students to mathematical proofs and abstract mathematical concepts. Topics may include modular arithmetic, prime numbers, sizes of infinite sets, a proof that some angles cannot be trisected with straightedge and compass, an introduction to group theory, or an introduction to topology.
A theoretical approach to real and complex inner product spaces, isometries, orthogonal and unitary matrices and transformations. The adjoint. Hermitian and symmetric transformations. Spectral theorem for symmetric and normal transformations. Polar representation theorem. Primary decomposition theorem. Rational and Jordan canonical forms. Additional topics including dual spaces, quotient spaces, bilinear forms, quadratic surfaces, multilinear algebra. Examples of symmetry groups and linear groups, stochastic matrices, matrix functions.
Topology of Rn; compactness, functions and continuity, extreme value theorem. Derivatives; inverse and implicit function theorems, maxima and minima, Lagrange multipliers. Integrals; Fubini’s theorem, partitions of unity, change of variables. Differential forms. Manifolds in Rn; integration on manifolds; Stokes’ theorem for differential forms and classical versions.
Differential Equations I
Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. See page 40 for details.
Congruences and fields. Permutations and permutation groups. Linear groups. Abstract groups, homomorphisms, subgroups. Symmetry groups of regular polygons and Platonic solids, wallpaper groups. Group actions, class formula. Cosets, Lagrange’s theorem. Normal subgroups, quotient groups. Classification of finitely generated abelian groups. Emphasis on examples and calculations.
Commutative rings; quotient rings. Construction of the rationals. Polynomial algebra. Fields and Galois theory: Field extensions, adjunction of roots of a polynomial. Constructibility, trisection of angles, construction of regular polygons. Galois groups of polynomials, in particular cubics, quartics. Insolvability of quintics by radicals.
Elementary topics in number theory: arithmetic functions; polynomials over the residue classes modulo m, characters on the residue classes modulo m; quadratic reciprocity law, representation of numbers as sums of squares.
Metric spaces, topological spaces and continuous mappings; separation, compactness, connectedness. Topology of function spaces. Fundamental group and covering spaces. Cell complexes, topological and smooth manifolds, Brouwer fixed-point theorem.
Theory of functions of one complex variable, analytic and meromorphic functions. Cauchy’s theorem, residue calculus, conformal mappings, introduction to analytic continuation and harmonic functions.
An elementary introduction to a modern and fast-developing area of mathematics. One-dimensional dynamics: iterations of quadratic polynomials. Dynamics of linear mappings, attractors. Bifurcation, Henon map, Mandelbrot and Julia sets. History and applications.
Metric spaces; compactness and connectedness. Sequences and series of functions, power series; modes of convergence. Interchange of limiting processes; differentiation of integrals. Function spaces; Weierstrass approximation; Fourier series. Contraction mappings; existence and uniqueness of solutions of ordinary differential equations. Countability; Cantor set; Hausdorff dimension.
Basic counting principles, generating functions, permutations with restrictions. Fundamentals of graph theory with algorithms; applications (including network flows). Combinatorial structures including block designs and finite geometries.
Groups, subgroups, quotient groups, Sylow theorems, Jordan-Hölder theorem, finitely generated abelian groups, solvable groups. Rings, ideals, Chinese remainder theorem; Euclidean domains and principal ideal domains: unique factorization. Noetherian rings, Hilbert basis theorem. Finitely generated modules. Field extensions, algebraic closure, straight-edge and compass constructions. Galois theory, including insolvability of the quintic.
Complex numbers, the complex plane and Riemann sphere, Mobius transformations, elementary functions and their mapping properties, conformal mapping, holomorphic functions, Cauchy’s theorem and integral formula. Taylor and Laurent series, maximum modulus principle, Schwarz’s lemma, residue theorem and residue calculus.
Function spaces; Arzela-Ascoli theorem, Weierstrass approximation theorem, Fourier series. Introduction to Banach and Hilbert spaces; contraction mapping principle, fundamental existence and uniqueness theorem for ordinary differential equations. Lebesgue integral; convergence theorems, comparison with Riemann integral, Lp spaces. Applications to probability.
Set theory and its relations with other branches of mathematics. ZFC axioms. Ordinal and cardinal numbers. Reflection principle. Constructible sets and the continuum hypothesis. Introduction to independence proofs. Topics from large cardinals, infinitary combinatorics and descriptive set theory.
Smooth manifolds, Sard’s theorem and transversality. Morse theory. Immersion and embedding theorems. Intersection theory. Borsuk-Ulam theorem. Vector fields and Euler characteristic. Hopf degree theorem. Additional topics may vary.
Introduction to homology theory: singular and simplicial homology; homotopy invariance, long exact sequence, excision, Mayer-Vietoris sequence; applications. Homology of CW complexes; Euler characteristic; examples. Singular cohomology; products; cohomology ring. Topological manifolds; orientation; Poincare duality.
Introduction to algebraic algorithms used in computer science and computational mathematics. Topics may include: generating sequences of random numbers, fast arithmetic, Euclidean algorithm, factorization of integers and polynomials, primality tests, computation of Galois groups, Gröbner bases. Symbolic manipulators such as Maple and Mathematica are used.
A selection of topics from: Representation theory of finite groups, topological groups and compact groups. Group algebras. Character theory and orthogonality relations. Weyl’s character formula for compact semisimple Lie groups. Induced representations. Structure theory and representations of semisimple Lie algebras. Determination of the complex Lie algebras.
Algebra and Algebraic Geometry
Projective geometry. Curves and Riemann surfaces. Algebraic methods. Intersection of curves; linear systems; Bezout’s theorem. Cubics and elliptic curves. Riemann-Roch theorem. Newton polygon and Puiseux expansion; resolution of singularities.
Harmonic functions, Harnack’s principle, Poisson’s integral formula and Dirichlet’s problem. Infinite products and the gamma function. Normal families and the Riemann mapping theorem. Analytic continuation, monodromy theorem and elementary Riemann surfaces. Elliptic functions, the modular function and the little Picard theorem.
Measure theory and Lebesgue integration; convergence theorems. Riesz representation theorem, Fubini’s theorem, complex measures. Banach spaces; Lp spaces, density of continuous functions. Hilbert spaces; weak and strong topologies; self-adjoint, compact and projection operators. Hahn-Banach theorem, open mapping and closed graph theorems. Inequalities. Schwartz space; introduction to distributions; Fourier transforms on Rn (Schwartz space and L2). Spectral theorem for bounded normal operators.
Riemannian metrics and connections. Geodesics. Exponential map. Complete manifolds. Hopf-Rinow theorem. Riemannian curvature. Ricci and scalar curvature. Tensors. Spaces of constant curvature. Isometric immersions. Second fundamental form. Topics from: Cut and conjugate loci. Variation energy. Cartan-Hadamard theorem. Vector bundles.
Sturm-Liouville problem and oscillation theorems for second-order linear equations. Qualitative theory; integral invariants, limit cycles. Dynamical systems; invariant measures; bifurcations, chaos. Elements of the calculus of variations. Hamiltonian systems. Analytic theory; singular points and series solution. Laplace transform.
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